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 sNdpIY aebmfn

tUm.sI.Fkv. chnIpam

 
 

  
       
a\pjy `mjbneqsS Bibhn\nabw \SnpSnb Imew apXte IYIfpapmbn.  tKm{XPohnXnse hn{iathfIfmIWw AXn\v k`samcpnbXv.  As\bpmb hmsamgnYI XeapdI ssIamdn  kaqlns s]mXpkzmbn.  ]nevmev AXn NnesXms hcsamgnbntev ]Isp.  Ahbvv ]eXcw cq]]cnWmafpmbn.  KZynepw ]Zynepw IYIfpmbn.  Cncnbp \dppIYI apX imtJm]imJIfmbn ]Sp]en IYI \nd CXnlmk hscbpmbn.

          FmWv IY? efnXambn ]dm Ime{Iaw A\pkcnp kw`hhnhcWamWv IY.  BZyamZyw BJym\w sNp kw`hfneqsS Hcp {]iv\w AhXcnnpIbpw XpSp hcp kw`hfneqsS AXv ]cnlcnpIbpw sNp LS\bmWv s]mXphn IYIfptSXv.  BJym\ns HmtcmLnepw C\nsbv ? F BImw tIhnmc\n DWcpw.  AXn\v AyamIptXmsS IYbpw Ahkm\npp

          anhmdpw Fm BJym\cq]fnepw IYtbm IYItfm DmIpw.  ]gbImes IYI cp [ \nhlnncpp.  tIhnmcs\ cknnpIbpw KpW]mTw ]IcpIbpw.  Cu cp[fpw Hntm thXncntm \nlnp IYIfpv.  ]gb Imes sNdnb IYIsf sIpIY (Tale) arKIY (Fable)  bnY(Fairy tale)  At\ym]tZiw (Allegory)  ZrmIY (Parable) sFXnlyw(Legend)  ]pcmhrw (Myth) Fns\ ]eXmbn C\w Xncnnpv.  Ccw ]gbIYmcq]fn thcpIfpXmWv XmcXtay\ A[p\nIamb kmlnXycq]w (Literary Genre) Bb sNdpIY (short- story)

          KZynepff BJym\ kmlnXyns(Fiction) Hcp hn`mKambmWv sNdpIY cq]sphcpXv. ]sm]Xmw \qmns BZyZiIfn Atacn sFIy\mSpI, {^mkv, Pn\n, dy XpSnb cmPyfn GXmv Htc Imev sNdpIYbpsS BZycq] Bhn`hnp.  ISemp \nmWnsbpw ASnbpsSbpw hym]\tmsS B\pImenI {]knoIcW [mcmfambn DmbnpSnbXv sNdpIYbpsS Dev]n hnImkġv Ifsamcpn.  hmIfpw AdnhpIfpw hmb\mcnsenm Bcw`n B\pImenIsf BIjIamm hmb\mv ckIcambn tXmp hn`hfpw thnhp.  As\bmWv sNdpIY F kmlnXycq]w Dcpncnp hXv. 

          sNdpIYsbpdnp ASnm\ k]w cq]sXv Cu ]menemWv.  Hcp kw`hw, Hcp IYm]m{Xw, Hcp hnImcw, Hch CXntesXnepambncnpw sNdpIYbpsS Du ap kw`hfpw IYm]m{Xfpw hnImchpsams tI{m\pXns\ ]cnt]mjnnWw.  GIm{KXbpw kwn]vXXbpw GIoIrX ^e{]XoXn (unity of impression) bpw AXn\pmIWw.  kthm]cn PohnXspdnv DġmgvN ]Icm Ignbp Hcp BJym\amIWaXv.  Cs\bp ASnm\ k] \ne\nss, ]gbXpw ]pXnbXpamb ]e kmtXnIcoXnIfpw kzoIcnpw ka\zbnpw Fm eW\ntitfbpw AXnhnp sImv sNdpIY AXnthKw hfp. 

aebmf sNdpIYbpsS Bcw`w 

          ]sm]Xmw \qmns cmw ]IpXnbn ]mmXy kmlnXy kns ^eambn aebmfkmlnXyn ]e ]cnh\fpw Dmbn.  AXns `mKambmWv t\mhepw sNdpIYbpw apapmbXv. 

          aebmfnse BZyIme B\pImenI {]knoIcWfnepw tIcfh henbtImbnpcm, sl Kpv XpSnbh Xmdmnb ]mTameIfnepw KpW]mT{][m\amb sNdnb IYI Dmbncpp.  Fm sNdpIY Fp hnfnm ]mInep Hcp cN\ ASnp hcpXv 1891 Ipw`w (s^{_phcn amv) ew hnZymhnt\mZn\n amknIbnemWv.  hmk\mIrXn F B IY cNbnXmhns t]cnmsXbmWv ASnnpsXnepw hnZymhnt\mZn\nbpsS kl]{Xm[n] IqSnbmbncp thbn Ipncma \mbcmWv IYmImc Fv IcpXntmcpp.  aqtmp Ipamc, HSphn IpnIrjvW tat\m, kn.Fkv. tKm]meWn XpSn ]ecpw B ZiIns {itbamb sNdpIYIsfgpXn.  Ccp]Xmw \qmns XpSambtmtgpw sNdpIYIġv A\pIqeamb Acoapmbn.  AmSn  \mcmbWs]mXphm Fw.B. sI.kn XpSnbh IYmImcmcmbn JymXn t\Sn.  Ahp ]ndsI, sI.kpIpamc, C.hn. IrjvWn, tXepdv \mcmbW Xn, kn.ichmcy XpSn ]e IYmImcmcpw IYmcwKw kPohamn.

          BZyImev Cu kmlnXycq]n\v sNdpIY F cq]kw Ddncpn.  IYmcq]amb D]\ymkw , JIY Fsmsbmbncpp t]cp ]dp hncpXv.  1930 \p tijap ImemWv sNdpIY t]cpdXv. 

          BZyIme sNdpIYmIrpfpsS cN\I {][m\ambpw {]Wbw, hocm]Zm\w, Aafn, IpmtjWw, tImSXn hyhlmcw, \mbmv XpSnb {]tabsf tI{oIcnmbncpp FgpXnbncpXv.  thbn Ipncma \mb\m, aptmp Ipamc XpSn NnecpsS IYIfn kmaqlnImhbpsS ASbmf sNdnb tXmXn ]Xnp Ip.  Ahcncphcpw kmaqlnI{]iv\sf hnainncp D]\ymkImcmcmbncpp FXpw Hmmw.  \mb\mcpsS ZzmcI (1893) aebmf sNdpIYbnse Hcp mknv Bbn AwKoImcw t\Snb cN\bmWv.  kmaqlnI ]cnjvIcWs apn IpsImp IYI ]eXpw aqtmp Ipamc FgpXn.  Gsdbpw Ipmt\zjW IYIfmsWgpXnbsXnepw hyXykvXX ]pep apXe\mbmmWv kn.Fkv. tKm]meWncpsS {]ikvX cN\.  BZimIhpw A`nPmXhpamb kv{Xo]pcpj t{]as aWn{]hmf ssienbn BemcnI `mjbn qeambn AhXcnnpIbmbncpp HSphn IpnIrjvW tat\m.  sjeIv tlmwkv IYIfpsS NphSp]nSnsgpXnb Dfn ]nSn ssI  t]msebp IYIfneqsSbmWv AmSn \mcmbWsmXphm {itb\mbXv.  `qXImemcon, ApX cktZymXIamb kmlknI IYI BJym\w sNpIbmbncpp Fw. B. sI.kn.  ckIchpw {]mkw \ndXpamb kw`mjWfmbncpp sI. kpIpamcs IYIfpsS Poh. 

          ]nmev lmkkmlnXyImc Fv {]kn\mb C.hn.IrjvWn 1920 IfpsS XpSn [mcmfw sNdpIYIsfgpXn.  Ah tIfoku[w F t]cn \mep `mKfmbn kamlcnsnpv.  {]Wbw XpSnb {]tabsf ap \ndpn FgpXnb B IYIfn lmkyn\v {]m[m\yan FXv {itbw.  kmaqlnI PohnXns Npe apJ Nne IYIfn sXfnp ImWppapv.  Fs K kvt\lnX ^mknbpsS km[yX \mbn D]tbmKnnp cN\bmWv. 

 aebmf sNdpIY 1925 \p tijw

           Ccp]Xmw \qmns BZys Im`mKw IgntXmsS tIcfns kmaqlnImcon hym]Iamb am Ip XpSn.  hym]IambnpSnb kmam\y hnZym`ymkw, kmaqlnI\thmm\ kwcw`, tZiob kzmX{y kacw, IjIcptSbpw sXmgnemfnIfptSbpw aptw FnhsbmspSn tNv B amn\v Bw Iqn.  Atmfw apJy[mcbn \nv AIn \ndpsncp P\hn`mKfpsS PohnXmhI kmlnXyn CSw t\SnpSn.  sXmgnemfnI, Iogmf, kv{XoI XpSnb hn`mK kmlnXyn {]mapJytmsS cwK{]thiw sNbvXXv Cu AconemWv.  CXns BZykqN\I IXv \qXncn kapZmbnse, _mlyPohnXw \ntcm[nsncp A\fpsS ZpxJ AhXcnn hn.Sn. `XncnmSns sNdpIYIfnemWv.  Fw. B._n., apncntmSv  `h{XmX \qXncnmSv Fnhcpw Cu PohnX taJebn\np IYIsfgpXn. 

           1930  IfpsS XpStmsS aebmf sNdpIYbn henb amfpmbn.  Fkv.sI. s]msmv, s]mIpw hn, sshw aplZv _jo, ]n. tIihtZhv, XIgn inhicn XpSnbh aebmf sNdpIYbn Hcp ]pXnb bpKns Bcw`w Ipdnp.  dnbenkn\v {]m[m\yap coXnb kmaqlnI {]iv\sf AhXcnnp IYIfmbncpp Ah FgpXnbXv.  apXeapdbnse IYmImcmcpsS qeamb h\Ifpw hniZamb ]me hnhcWfpw apw Hgnhmn GIm{KXbvpw kwn]vXXbvpw {]m[m\yw sImSpp Ch sNdpIYIfn. 

          Fkv.sI. s]msmns sNdpIYI ASnm\]cambn Imev]\nIkz`mhw ]pephbmWv.  Ah a\pjykz`mhns sshNn{Xysf t\ \ns ASnsbmgptmsS Nn{XoIcnpp.  temIns ]e tImWpIfnepw Xpd IpItfmsS kcn s]msmns a\n ]Xn CSfpw Nn{Xfpw BfpIfpw Nne sNdpIYIġv hnjbambnpv. ]pnam, \nimKn, Ggnew]me, HIw, AIs tXmn,h[p, IShptXmWn XpSn s]msmSns {]ikvXamb sNdpIYI Htsdbpv.  s]mXphn Fkv.sI.bpsS sNdpIYI ]eXpw qeXbpXmWv. Atlns Ghpw inev]`{Zamb sNdpIY \ZoXocn  BWv. Xs Npp]mSpap km[mcWmcpsS PohnXw IYmhnjbamnsbnepw B IYI kmaqlnI ]cnh\n\p {]NcW]camb eytmsS FgpXshb. hynsb \nebn CSXp]cm{obns klbm{XnI\mbncp npw s]msmns IYIfn cm{obmwiw IpdhmWv.  ASnm\]cambn B sNdpIYI Imev]\nI kz`mhaphbmWv.

          ss{IkvXh k`bnse ]utcmlnXy ta[mhnXzsbpw kn.]n.cmakzman AcpsS tkzm`cWtbpw FXnpsImv sNdpIYIsfgpXnb FgppImc\mWv s]m Ipw hn.  Atlns sNdpIYIfpsS Iem]camb aqeys kwibnh t]mepw AhbpsS cm{obaqeys AwKoIcnnpv.  a{nsv, tamU Fo IYI As cm{obnXntbmSp {]XnIcWfmWv.  Intmcbnm ]utcmlnXyta[mhnXztmSp Iem]ns NqSv AtmWo \obpa\mtbmSm, cp Nn{Xw XpSnb IYIfn {]ISamWv.  ae\mS ImjnI PohnX Nn{X s]mIpw hnbpsS ]e sNdpIYIfnepw ImWmw.  IjI\v Ahs hfp arKtmSp B{Zamb lrZb_s BhnjvIcnp sNdpIYbmWv inp Ie F {]ikvX cN\.  \maam{XIjIcpsS kmnI sRcphpw PohnX ssZ\yhpw B IYbpsS iamb A[mcbmWv. 

          Cu Ln cwK{]thiw sNbvX asmcp {]apJ IYmIrmWv  XIgn inhicn.  tIkcn _meIrjvW]nbpambp ASpw Cwojn\p ]pdp bqtdm]y sNdpIYbpsS ]pXnb apJspdndnbm XIgnp hgnsbmcpn.  amIvknsbpw t{^mbvUnsbpw apw BibfpsS ]mmen kmaqlnI imkv{Xnsbpw a\ximkv{Xnsbpw km[yXI DsmpsImv XIgn sNdpIYI FgpXn.  dnbenv kmtXnI amw AXn\v A\pKpWamb hn[n Atlw cN\bvp]tbmKnp.  XIgnbpsS BZyIme cN\Ifn Hmb shsmn aebmf sNdpIYbpsS Ncn{Xn m\w ]nSn IrXnbmWv.  Ip\mnse shsmn apnmgm t]mIp Dt]ns Hcp IpSnen PohnXn\pw acWn\panSbn \np Hcp \mbbpsS AhmNn{XWw \Sp IYbmWXv.  XlknZmcpsS Aѳ, amqhn shfp Ipv, Irjnmc XpSnb IYIfneqsS Ip\mS {KmaoW PohnXs ap\ndpn tIcfob kaql]cnWmaNn{X XIgn hcnp.  IpcpSs NmcnXmyw ]mfmc XpSnb XIgnbpsS hynap{Z ]Xn IYI Gsdbpv. 

          kaqlnepw kmlnXy cwKpw \ne\nncp hyhm]nXXzsf \ninXambn FXn IYmIrmWv ]n. tIihtZhv.  kmlnXya, PohnXamWv Xs apnep {]iv\w Fv Dds hnfnp ]d tIihtZhns sNdpIYI Hmtcmpw Hmtcm PohnX hnai\amWv.  Ahbn BZimIXbptSbpw Imev]\nIXbptSbpw sshImcnIXbpw Afhv apnp \npp.  PohnXns ]pdwt]mn IgnbphcpsS IYI hntijnpw kv{Xo PohnXns ssZ\yns IYI XovWambn AhXcnnpXn tIihtZhv ssh`hw Imn.  {]Xn F sNdpIYbn \n[\cmb cp {KmaoW kv{XoIfpsS aXvkcneqsS AhcpsS PohnXmhbpsS ssZ\yXbpw PohnXKXnbpsS A\nhmcykz`mhhpw Atlw `{Zambn Nn{XoIcnp.  _pbm{X, Iq{Unv, aco\n `mhnhc, KpkvXn hmb\mime hmkq XpSn anI sNdpIYI ]eXpw tIihtZhnsXmbpv. 

          Xo{hamb PohnXm\p`hfneqsS ISp t]mb FgppImc\mWv sshw aplZv _jo.  B A\p`hfpsS BhnjvImcamWv Atlns kmlnXyw.  _jodns IYmPohnXn\v aqp L ImWmw. ]nWnbpw cm{obbmX\bpw tZimcPohnXhpw Hs A\p`hn kwLj`cnXamb BZyLw.  PZn\w, hniv, ssSK XpSnb IYI Cu Lns A\p`hfneqpp.  1950 Ifn XpSp cmwLw D]lmk cN\IfptSXmWv.  kmaqlnI cm{ob sshIrXsf lmkymIambn AhXcnn hnizhnJymXamb aqv, FpImen aqv XpSnb IYI Cu LnteXmWv.  aqmwLn BKXns Ombbp kzO cN\IfmWv _jo FgpXnbXntesdbpw.  XtamXncw, tdUntbm{Kmw F tXcv, kzame XpSnb IYI Cu LnteXmWv. kmaqlnIXbpw sshbnIXbpw Xnep IemI ka\zbw _jodns sNdpIYIfn ImWmw.  ]noSv, B[p\nIXbpsS {]`mhImev kPohambn BhnjvIcns Nne `mhfpsS _oPcq] _jodns cN\Ifn t\ct Xs {]Xysnpv.  cq]`mhfn _jo hcpnb \nccamb \hoIcWw, aebmfn sNdpIY F kmlnXycq]spdnp nc[mcWIsf Xncpnpdnp. 

          1930 IfpsS XpSn aebmf sNdpIYm cwKv {]thin Imcq \oeIWvTn aebmfnse Fmesbpw anI sNdpIYmImcmcn HcmfmWv.  hensbmcfthmfw sNdpIYbn HXpn \npsImv kmlnXyPohnXn\v AKuchw sImSp FgppImc\mWtlw.  Imcq FgpXnb sNdpIYIfpsS Fw GXmv Ccpqtdmfw hcpw.  Ahbn ]ncp]sXsanepw aebmfnse sNdpIYIfn s]Spw.  BZyImev Xpifmcmb ss{]adnkvq Aym]IcpsS kmnIZpcnXs {]tabamn FgpXnb hmym IYI (ImN{Iw, AZv`pXa\pjy, km h\w XpSnbh) Imcqcns A\p`hap{Z ]XnhbmWv.  kaqlns AcnIpIfntev HXpshcpsS IYI ]dbpp.  sNIpm, hšmc, AcmWw, DXpms InW XpSnb IYI.  kqaamb PohXt_m[hpw inev]NmXpcnbpw {]ISnnphbmWv Imcqcns sNdpIYI.  kmaqlnI PohnXspdnp DġmgvN Ahbvv BcnI ZmVyw \Ipp.  ]qhgw, acmhI, tamXncw XpSnb IYI aebmf sNdpIYbnse A\p]a cN\IfmWv.  Cwojv hnZym`ymkw t\Snbnnm Imcq sNdpIYsbpdnp ASnm\ k]tmSv Ghpw CWn \np IrXnI cNnp.  Atln\p klPamb \nb{nXamb BJym\w CXn\p klmbIambnpv. kaqlnI bmYmysf Nn{XoIcnptm B IYI {]NcW]cXbntev amdpn.  ss\XnIhpw [mnIhpamb Hcp ASnm\ \ne]mSv Imcqcns IYIfn ImWmw.

          Atmfw PohnXns apJy[mcbntev ISphcm P\hn`mKġv kmlnXyn CSw Innb ImeamWv 1930I.  kv{XoIġpw kmlnXyns cwKthZnbntev ISphcm Cu k`w {]tbmP\sp.  h\oXntbmsSmw enwK\oXnbpw kmlnXyn {]tabambn.  AXn\pappw FgppImcnI Dmbnpsnepw aebmfkmlnXyns apJy[mcbn kv{XoIġv CSw InpXv Cu ]menemWv.  efnXmw_nI A\w adpSbvpn Ignbp \qXncn kv{XoIfpsS PohnX ssZ\yns IYI A\p`h XovWXtbmsS AhXcnnp sImv ISphXv Cu LnemWv. aqSp]Sw {]XnImctZhX XpSnb IYI Cu A\p`haes BhnjvIcnpp.  ]mcbpbn iniphns hfbnse kmP\o\ `mhs AhXcnn APvP\w ]nmev a\pjy]p{Xnbn `q]cnjvIcWn\p tijap \qXncn kaqlns kmnI ZpcnXns Nn{Xfpw AhXcnnp.  cm{obhpw kmaqlnIhpamb DġmgvNI ]penbncp A\ns IYI, sshbnIm\p`hn tI{oIcnp ImhymI cN\IfmWv. 

          Cu Ln ISph sI.kckzXn A aebmfnse BZys s^an\nv IYmImcnbmWv.  kv{XohmZns {]Xybimkv{Xw ChnsS ]cnNbamIp Xn\p apmWv Ah IYIsfgpXnbsXnepw hyamb kv{XohmZ \ne]mSpI Ahbn ImWmw.  Amev hnZym`ymkw t\SpIbpw kzbwsXmgnseSpv PohnpIbpw sNbvX kv{XoItfmSv kaqlw ]penb \ntj[mI at\m`mhn\p t\scbp iamb {]XnIcWfmbncpp AhcpsS IYI.  hnhmlkm\w, s]_pn, kv{XoPw, hnhmlw kzn \Spp, IogvPoh\mcn XpSnb IYI Cu khntij \ne]mSns BhnjvImcfmWv.  ImhymIXtbm kwhmZkz`mhamWv kckzXn AbpsS IYIġpXv. 

          ]nmev Ddq_v F XqenIm\man {]kn\mb ]n.kn.IpnIrjvW IYmcN\bntep {]thinXpw Cu ImebnfhnemWv.  kmaqlnI {]iv\tfm hynZqxJsf  tI{oIcngpXnb IYIfmWv ]n.kn.IpnIrjvWtXv.  cN\m]camb Imcyfn Xs ]nXeapdmtcmSv IpnIrjvW\v ASpapv.  ImhymIXbpsS t\ BhcWhpw \ns kv]ihpw Atlns sNdpIYIsf BIjIampp.  cmnb, hmSIhoSpI, IqsSpp av, Xpdn PmeIw, cmambWw, Ipdnnq XpSnb IYI Atlns a\pjylrZb m\nsbpw BJym\ anIhntbpw DZmlcWfmIpp.  shfp Ipn, Xmacsmn XpSnb IYIfn \mtSmSnYIfpsS LS\sb ]pXnb cq]n D]tbmKnm\p {]hWX {]ISamIpp.  _nw_ sImv km{hpw [\ymIhpamb hnhcWcoXnbmWv Ddq_ns IYIġpXv.  kw`mjWn tZiy`mjm khntijXI Atlw hnZKvZambn HnsbSppp. 

          As kmlnXymcon {]_eambncp Bib[mc ]ptcmKa\ kmlnXyntXmbncpp.  {]m\sa \nebn AXnt\mSv tNp \nmXncp FgppImcpsS cN\Ifntmepw AXns kzm[o\X ImWm\mIpw.  ]ptcmKa\ kmlnXyns \ne]mSpIsf Ghpw \mbn BhnjvIcn kmlnXy cq]w sNdpIYbmbncp FXpw {itbw.  CXv sNdpIYsb AXnthKw Hcp P\Iob kmlnXycq]amnop.  ktijnbphcpw Amhcpamb Htsdt sNdpIYIsfgpXn.  CXckmlnXy hn`mKfn {]hnhcpw Cu Ln sNdpIYbn HcpssI t\mmXncpn.  \ncq]I\mb tPmk^v aptcnbpw  IhnIfmb Npgbpw Anhpw NnI\mb Fw. tKmhn\psams {itbamb sNdpIYIsfgpXn.  C.Fw. tImhq, t]mnc dm^n, \mKhn B.Fkv. Ipdpv, shq cma \mb, s]cp tXmakv, F. tKmhn Ipn, Smm]pcw kpIpamc XpSnbh {itbcmbXpw Cu Ln Xs. CSXp] cm{obns {]Xnm_amb kmlnXysa \nebn sNdpIYm cN\ \Snb FgppImcpw Cu Lnepmbn.  sNdpImSv, kn.ANypXpdpv, Un. Fw. s]msmSv XpSnbh B hn`mKnsSpp. 

          Atmtgpw sas cq]sph `mhmIamb cN\mcoXn kzmbamnsmv, kmaqlnI PohnX Nn{X hcn ]e sNdpIYmImcmcpapv.  ZenXv PohnXns kXykamb BhnjvImcw \Snb Sn.sI.kn. hSpXe Ahcn {]apJ\mWv.  sImn \Kcns {]m{]tZip \mn]pds IrjnWnmcmb ]pebcpsS IYI AhcpsS kmwkvImcnI PohnX khntijXIsf HnsbSppsImmhnjvIcnpIbmbncptlw.  GXv apJy[mcm IYmIrns sNdpIYItfmSpw InS\nvp inev]ku`Kap cN\Ifmbncpp Ah.  Ncmn AS, A sho Cm, F hnXnbm XpSnb IYI Cu khntij kz`mhw ]pephbmWv. 

          aebmfs kw_nnStmfw Cu Imebfhnse sNdpIYIfmWv B kmlnXy cq]ns LS\m]camb khntijXI \mbn {]ZinnXv.  Ahbn Gsdbpw GI kw`htI{oXtam GIIYm]m{XtI{nXtam BsWp ImWmw.  IqSpXembn IYbn AhXcnnsSp kw`hfpw IYm]m{Xfpsams apJyambXns\ ]cnt]mjnnpp.  tIkcn _meIrjvW]nbneqsSbpw apw ]Ip Innb bqtdm]y sNdpIYsbpdnp [mcWI Cmcyn \psS IYmImcm hgnImnbmbn.  s]sp XmZmyw {]m]nm Ignbp km[mcWmcmb IYm]m{X, ]cnNnXamb PohnXk`, \mpsamgn tbmSSpp \np `mj Fnhsbmw Cmes sNdpIYIsf Gsd P\Iobamn. 

 1950 Ifneqmb ]cnh\w

          1950 Ifmbtmtgpw sNdpIYmklnXyn Nne am Ip XpSn.  {]tabfnse {]ISamb kmaqlnIXbvv Ipdhp hcnIbpw sshbnIm\p`hġv {]m[m\yw hcnIbpw sNbvXp.  IYsbm _mlykw`hNn{XoIcWw am{Xa, IYm]m{Xns A`mhNn{XoIcWw IqSnbmWv F kao]\w cq]sp.  Cu ]cnh\ns apWnbn \n IYmIrpfmWv Sn. ]\m`, Fw.Sn. hmkptZh \mb, am[hnpn, tImhne, F.]n. aplZv XpSnbh. 

          kmaqlnI cm{ob aefn Dmb ]cnh\ BWv IYmkmlnXyn Cu amapmbXns Hcp t{]cW. cmw temIalm bp^eambpmb kmnI {]Xnkn, kzmX{m\cLnepmb {]Xom`wKw Fnhsbms BfpIsf IqSpX AapJcmn.  Atmtgpw t_m[[mcmcoXn t]msebp ]pXnb BJym\coXnbpw ]mmXykmlnXy ]cnNbap FgppImp e`np Ignp.  Cu ]mmenemWv `mh{][m\hpw ImhymIhpamb ssienbn IYm]m{XfpsS am\knINe\sf HnsbSpp BJym\coXnbpambn ]pXnb IYmIrpI cwK {]thiw sNbvXXv. 

          Sn. ]\m`s sNdpIYI hynbpsS GImXsbbpw hnjmZtbpw tI{oIcnv FgpXnbnphbmWv.  Cymhn`P\ns ]mmen IpSpw__ԧ inYneamb Hcp hynbpsS Xo{hamb BthZ\ BhnjvIcnp IYbmWv aJknns acWw ISbs\qcnse Hcp kv{Xo {]Imiw ]cp s]Ipn tiJqn `bw Hcp IYmIrv Ipcnin XpSnbhsbms Sn. ]\m`s anI sNdpIYIfmWv.  sshbnIXbn tI{oIcnp kz`mhw ]Zva\m`s anI sNdpIYIġpv. 

          Xs P{Kmas ]meamn, X\nv Xo{hambn A\p`hnm Ign PohnXk`sfbpw ASpdnbm Ign a\pjyscbpw ap\ndpn FgpXnbhbmWv Fw.Sn. hmkptZh \mbcpsS sNdpIYIfntesdbpw.  {]mtZinI kzXzns iamb kmn[yw B IYIfn sXfnbpp.  BZy ImesgpXnb IptySn, Ccpns Bmhv, InSIw XpSnb IYIfn am{Xa, hfsc hjġptijw hyXykvXamb inev]{Ian cNn hm\{]w sjeIv, sNdnb sNdnb `qI  XpSnb IYIfnepw Cu Awiw {]_eamWv.  ]nmev B[p\nIX(modernism) bpsS Ln AhXcnns AcmPI {]IrXnIfmb \mbImcpsS BZycq] hnpI  tPm XpSnb  Fw.SnbpsS sNdpIYIfn ImWmw.  endn dnbenkns anI amXrIIfmb Fw.SnbpsS sNdpIYI Imemcn ]pXnb cN\mX{ HuNnXy]qw kzmwioIcnv hfp.  tImhne, ]mdpdv, \\m Fnhsc ]mfYmImcm F KWnsSpmdpv.  PohnXhrnhim ]mfnepmbncp Ch As\ ]cnNbsSm\nSbmb e]mefpw IYm]m{Xfpw PohnXcwKfpw sNdpIYbn BhnjvIcnp. AsXmgnm AhcpsS IYI XnIpw hyXykvXfmWv.  Icpns IYmImc\mWv tImhne.  GXp Zpctbpw AXnPohnp, bmX\bneqsS kv^v]pSw sNbvsXSp Xmtgnse a\pjycnse \sb Atlw BhnjvIcnpp.  Hmtcm IYbpw kvt]mS\mIamb in {]ISampp. Hcp IjvWw An, sNnq, ]mbkw, d, kpPmX, iIp\w, iwJv XpSn Htsd anI sNdpIYI tImhne FgpXnbnpv.  \ninXXzamWv AhbpsS ASnm\ KpWw. ]mdpdnsbpw \\mcptSbpw sNdpIYIfn KrlmXpcXzamWv apJy`mhw.  Imev]\nIXbpsS `mhmIX ]S kcfamb BJym\w B IYIsf BIjIampp. 

          1950 Ifn aebmf sNdpIYbn iambno Imev]\nI `mhpIXzns ]ctImSn BhnjvIcnXv F.taml\\mWv.  \ns IY(Fsbpw), sImpXncpta\n, Aley, ]qPbvsSpm ]q XpSnbp Atlns sNdpIYI KZynep Imhy`mjWfmWv.  kv{XobpsS A\p`haen \npsImv hnjmZw XpSnp IYI FgpXnb cmPeanbpsS cN\IfpsS `mhXehpw CXnt\mSSpp \npp.  sI.Sn.aplZv, Pn. F. ]Wn, Pn.hnthIm\, C. hmkp, {iohcmlw _meIrjvW XpSn Cu Ln kPohambn hn FgppIm ]ecpapv.   

B[p\nIX (modernisam) aebmf sNdpIYbn

          1960 IfpsS XpStmsS aebmf sNdpIYbn henb Hcp amw kw`hnp.  kmlnXynse B[q\nIXm {]m\w (modernisam) iambnpSnb ImeamWXv.  cN\mcoXnsb \nebn dnbenk (realisam) ns Imew Ignp Fp {]Jym]np sImv ]pXnb cN\mcoXnI Bhn`hnp.  bYmys A]cnNnXhevcnv AhXcnnp coXnbmbncpp AXn {][m\w.  annsbpw sFXnlyfptSbpw {`a`mh\bptSbpw apw ktX sNdpIYbntev ISphp.  CXnt\msSmw {itbamb Hcp Imcyw PohnXs \ntj[mIambn ImWp kao]\w iambn FXmWv.  kaqlns Im]Sytfbpw PoXItfbpw Nn{XoIcnpXnepw Cu \ntj[kz`mhw ImWmw.  AkvXnXzhmZhpw iq\yXmhmZhpw Cu KWns FgppImcpsS A`naXamb Bib[mcWIfmbnop.  PohnXs ISYbmbn ImWpIbpw AXv krn cmhW tImbn \nv csSm\p amambn acWs BZihXvIcnpIbpw sNbvXp B[p\nI ]e cN\Ifnepw.  ]pXnb PohnX kao]\fpw \hXzap cN\mcoXnIfpw sImv Cu KWns FgppIm AXnthKw kmlnXymcon AwKoImcw t\Sn. 

          Cu {]m\ns IYmIrp anhcpw tIcfnse {Kmafn \nv Dtcybnse alm\Kcfn D]Poh\w tXSnsbnbhcmbncpp.  am\pjnIX \s, koamb \mKcoIm\p`hw Ahsc A\yhevIrXcmn.  Acw A\p`hsf Ah {`amIambn AhXcnnp.  CXns XpSw ImWm IgnbpXv am[hnpnbpsS sNdpIYIfnemWv.  IeymWn , aescphpIfn XpSnb sNdpIYIfneqsS am[hnpn CXns BZykqN\I \In.  Ncn{X]cambn ]dm Sn.]Zva\m`sbpw Fw.SnbptSbpw XhapdtbmsSmambncpp am[hnpn F IYmImcnbpsS cwK{]thiw.  Fm B `mhpIXzLs ]nXpSp h B[p\nIXmhmZns `mhpIXzs aebmfn iamnsbSphcpsS apWnbn \nXv Cu IYmImcnbmWv.  ]nbpsS aWw aebmfnse B[p\nI sNdpIYbpsS anI {]Xn\n[nbmbn  KWnsnpv.  AXn\papdw aebmfnse kv{XohmZ kmlnXyns {][m\ t\fpw am[hnpnbpsS IYmtemIp\nmWv.  kv{Xo ]pcpj_s t{]aw ZmXyw IpSpw_w kaqlw XpSnb LS\Iġpn \ndpn hnai\mIambn AhXcnnp cN\I Htsdbpv AhcptSXmbn.  kv{Xo a\ns AXohkqaamb `mh t]mepw B IYIfn Ah HnsbSpp.  BcoIamb ImhymIXbpw AXohkwn]vXamb inev]LS\bpw B IYIsf A\p]aamn.  Xs IYmPohnXns XpSw apXentmfw A\p{Iaamb hnImkw t\Sm\pw am[hnpnbvp Ignnpv. 

          B[p\nIXm{]m\hpambn _s {][m\ IYmIrpfmWv Im\mS, Fw.]n. \mcmbW]n , H.hn.hnPb, Fw. apIp, kdnb, B\v, ]cmP, tkXp, ]p\n Ipp  XpSnbh.  \mKcnIm\p`hn \np sImv {KmaoWPohnXs \ho\amb HcpġmgvNtbmsS t\mnmWm Chp Ignnpv.  B[p\nIXm{]m\ns PohnXkao]\s BhnjvIcnptm Xs XfpsS klPamb cN\mkhntijXI {]ISnnp Cu FgppImtcmcpcpw.  Fw. ]n. \mcmbW]nbpsS apcpI F ]mmn, tPmv Bdmas tImSXn Im\mSs {]hmNI, Ipmew, _mt_, {ioN{Iw, H.hn.hnPbs ]mdI, ISocv, sNq hn, Fw. apIps cm[ cm[am{Xw ap\w sNs PohnXw, Achbp Ipn, kdnbpsS HcnSv, tbip]pcw ]nIv sse{_dnsbpdnv Hcp ]cmXn, Bdnbmw, tkXphns Ipesmgn.  ]p\n IppbpsS aeapIfnse Ap ]n. ]cmPs Nq, ]pIS, XpSnbhsbms Cu khntij `mhpIXzns Dev]amWv.  ChcpsS anI IYI ]eXpw aebmf sNdpIYbpsS Ncn{Xns A\nhmcy`mKamWv. 

          B[p\nIXm {]m\w Cs\ kPohambn \ne\n ImepXs AXns s]mXpkz`mhfn \nv hyXykvXX ]penb FgppImcpapmbnpv.  Nne Awifn B[p\nIXbpsS kv]iw ImWm Ignbpsanepw auenIamb cN\m coXnsImv A\\yX t\SnbhbmWv hn.sI.F. IYI.  Xs X\Xp ap{Z]Xn Hcp `mjbpw BJym\coXnbpw cq]sSpn hn.sI.F. ]kv, Nmkv, Ip tat\m, \mWzmcv XpSnb IYm]m{Xsf tI{oIcnv hn.sI.F XpSsc FgpXnb IYI Atlns {]Xn`bpsS ssh]peys hyampp. ev t]msebp IYI aebmfnse anI GXp sNdpIYtbmSpw InS\npXmWv. 

          Fgp]XpIfn B[p\nIXm {]m\ns IYm[mcbvv cp apJfpmbn.  koamb `mjm{IaneqsS IYmLS\bvv ISYbpsS kzcq]w \Inb Sn. Bdnsbpw sI.]n.\n Ipamdnsbpw cN\I Hcphgnv.  IYsb Hcp `mjm\p`hw am{Xambn HXpnsbSppIbmbncpp Ah.  asmcp Znibntebvpw sNdpIYI \onpSnbncpp.  CSXp] Xo{hhmZcm{obw kPohambncp B Ln AXns ASbmf {]ISnn IYI Dmbn.  Fw.kpIpamc, ]p hnf IcpWmIc, bp.]n.PbcmPv XpSnbhcpsS cN\I Cu \nebn Gsd hyXykvXhpw auenIhpw BWv. 

          Fw. kpIpamcs A\ym]tZinsbpw sFXnlynsbpw apw cq]LS\ kzoIcnpsImv B[p\nIamb `mhpIXzw {]ISnnpsImv CSXp]mibtfmSv {]Xnm_X {]ISnnpsImv ]pXpabp IYI FgpXn.  Htc kabw \psS CSXp]cm{obns {]tbmKnI cq]tfmSp hnizkhpw hnai\hpw Ahbn XpSnp \np.  Xqpac Rġv, acnnnmhcpsS kvamcI, Ncn{XKmY kwLKm\w Iev]hrns Ce XpSnbh Ahbn {][m\w.  1975 - 77 Imev cms {Kkn ASnbncmhbpsS Ccp A\p`hs Bgn AhXcnn sNdpIYbmWv bp.]n. PbcmPns av.

          B[p\nIXm {]m\ns kzm[o\X aebmfsNdpIYbn kPohambtXmsS, AXnt\mSv  t\cn B`napJyw ]pemXncp Nne FgppImcpsS cN\Ifnepw AXns ]tcmap{ZI sXfnp XpSn.  Fm B[p\nIXm {]m\ns kzm[o\Xbn \nv ap\mbn \npsImv ]mccycoXnbn IYIsfgpXn aebmf sNdpIYm cwKv kzw hynXzw m]nsSp IYmIrmWv kn.hn. {iocma.  hmkvXplmcCcn]nWvVw, A\mbmtk\ acWw , s]mamS CZm\w XpSn Htsd IYIfneqsS kn.hn.{iocma Bgap PohnXmhIsf AhXcnnp.  sshimJ, he, Fkv. ]n. thWptKm] \mb, sI.F. taml\h, kn.B. Hma\p XpSn ]ecpw Cu Ln hyXykvXambn FgpXnb IYmIrpfmWv.  hStae_mdns hmsamgn hgns km[yXI sNdpIYIfn {]mtbmKnIamnsmv bp.F. JmZ XtXmb Hcp hgn shnpdpIbpw sNbvXp. 

 B[p\nIXbvv tijw

          1970 IfpsS cmw ]IpXnbmbtXmsS B[p\nIXm {]m\ns thenbndambn.  B[p\nIm\c kmlnXyns Nne kz`mh aebmf sNdpIYbnepw {]XyspXpSn.  Htc kabw B[p\nIXbpsS XpSbpw CSbpw AXn ImWm XpSn.  Cu ]cnh\w BZyw hyambXv hn.]n.inhIpamdns sNdpIYIfnemWv.  Ahbn ]mcUn, sFdWn, ]mTmc _w XpSnb cN\m khntijXI {]ISambncpp.  Fm ]nmev Atlw {]XnjvT A hp XpSnb mn am\fp sNdpIYI FgpXn. 

          ASp ZiIn (1980Ifn) Dcm[p\nI IYmkmlnXyns ktXnI kz`mh NnesXms aebmf sNdpIYbnepw sXfnp Ip.  tI{oIrXamb GsXnepw Bib[mctbmtSm, BJym\ coXntbmtSm ASpw ]pephbmbncp n Cu cN\I.  B[p\nIXbpsS Lnse sNdpIYIsf At]nv cq]nepw {]tabnepw Chbvv emLhw Dmbncpp.  IqSpX kpXmcyamb BJym\hpw Xpd LS\bpw Ahbn sXfnp Ip.  ]mnjv, sam^n, ^mkn XpSnb BJym\coXnI Cu ]qXnb IYIfn D]tbmKnsp.  Cu Hcp hntYmhbnepw Nne {]tXyI kmwkvImcnI \ne]mSpI sNdpIYbn kPohamIp ImgvN sXmqdpIfnse aebmf sNdpIYbnepv.  kv{XohmZw, ]cnnXn Aht_m[w, {]moIrX hn`mKfpsS kmn[yw XpSnbhtbmSp _s Hcp {]O cm{obw Ahbn ImWmw. 

          hn.]n. inhIpamdns\ IqSmsX, B[p\nIXbpsS tijap Ln {]mapJyw t\Snb IYmIrpfmWv F.Fkv. am[h, kmdmtPmk^v, Sn.hn. sImp_mh, F.{]`mIc, AtiI Ncphn, AIv_ In, kn.hn. _meIrjvW, bp.sI. Ipamc, Aaqn, Abva\w tPm, ]n.kptc{ XpSnbh.  Cy AhbpsS cm{obhpw ss\XnIhpamb {]iv\sf kqaambn AhXcnnpIbmWv F.Fkv. am[hs IYI.  lnKzn , ImWn, hc hogptm \memw temIw XpSnbh Gsd N sNshbmWv.  kv{XohmZ \ne]mSns ihpw Xo{hhpamb BhnjvmcamWv kmdmtPmk^ns sNdpIYIfnepXv.  apSnssapdbpp, ]m]d, \nemhv Adnbpp, AtimI XpSnb IYI B \ne]mSns iamb BhnjvImcfmWv.  kv{XobpsS A\p`htemIs khntijambn BhnjvIcn sNdpIYIfneqsS aebmf sNdpIYbn kv{Xo]ns Hcp kPoh[mc hfnsbSphcmWv AjnX, N{aXn, am\kn, t{Kkn, KoX lncWy, {]nb F.Fkv., kn.Fkv. NnI, sI.B.anI, sI.tcJ XpSnbh.

          1991 aebmf sNdpIYbpsS iXmn BtLmjfpsS `mKambpmb A\pIqeamb Acow sNdpIYmcwKv DWhpmn.  {]km[I IYmkamlmcġv {]m[m\yw sImSpp.  Ahbvv \ hn]Wn Inn.  ]pXnb FgppIm [mcmfambn cwK{]thiw sNbvXp.  B\pImenIfn sNdpIYIġv IqSpX {]m[m\yw e`np.  Fgpp \ndpn \ncmbncp apIme IYmIrp ]ecpw hopw kPohambn.  F.taml\, taXn cm[mIrjvW, sI.]n. \n Ipam XpSnbh hopw cwKsn.  s]mXphn aebmfnse Ghpw kPohamb kmlnXyhn`mKambn sNdpIY Cu Imebfhn amdn. 

          t\cs Xs cN\mcwKv ISphncp F.]n.lm^okv aplZv , Cu.hn.{io[c, i{XpL\, tPmPv tPmk^v sI., hn. Fkv. A\n Ipam, {]`mIc ]gn, Sn.F. {]Imiv, F{_lmw amXyp, Fw. cmPohv Ipam, he hmXptcn, Aw_nImkpX ammSv, _m_p Ipgnaw, Fw. B.at\mlch, kXojv _m_p ]q XpSnbhcpw Cu Acos kPohamn.

          1990IfpsS XpSn {ins IYmIrpfn {]apJ sI.]n. cma\pnbmWv.  ]pXnb temImh a\pjy\n Gev]np BLmXsf sFdWn Ie BJym\{Ian AhXcnnp IYIfmWv cma\pnbptSXv.  inlm_po s]mbvpw IShv, at\mPv PmXthZcv, tPmk^v acnb, chn, Fw. \Ipam, Fw.Pn._m_p, Sn.]n. thWptKm]me, ]n.F.hnPb XpSnbhcpw Cu Ln {itbamb sNdpIYIsfgpXn. 

          Ign Hcp ]Xnmn\nSbn sNdpIYmcwKv ISp hcnIbpw ]pXpabp IYIfneqsS {insSpIbpw sNbvX IYmIrpfmWv kp`mjv N{, _n.apcfn, ktmjv Gnm\w, sI.G. sk_my, knXmc Fkv., C.ktmjv, Pn.B.CptKm], hn\p F{_lmw, Fkv.B. em, a[p]m, sFkIv Cu, sI.Kncojv Ipam, B. Dn, F.{]Zo]v Ipam, kn.A\q]v, _nt\mbv ]n.sP, tSmw. sP. amSv, Sn._n.em, Cp tat\m XpSnbh.

          aebmf sNdpIYbpsS Ghpw ]pXnb apJns {]Xn\n[nIfmb Cu FgppImcpsS cN\Ifn Gsd sshhn[yw ImWmw.  ]pXpabvp thnbp At\zjWtmsSmw sNdpIY kwthZ\aamIWw F {ibpw Chpv.  BtKmf hym]vXambn ]Scp ]pXnb Imens A`ncpNnIfpw AhIfpw Cs sNdpIYIfn ImWmw.  AtXmsSmw aebmfnbpsS X\Xmb kzXzmhnjvImcn\p {iahpw Ahbnepv.  Cs\ Imensbpw temInsbpw khntijXIsf tcJsSpnsmv aebmf sNdpIY aptmp t]mIpp.    

 
 

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