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aebmfIhnXbpsS Ncn{Xw Hcp ]cnNbpdnv

tUm: tZiawKew cmaIrjvW .......................

 

 

        kmlnXyns BZycq]w hmsamgnhnXbmWv.  \mS]mpIfpw PohnXns hnhn[ XpdIfn  cq]w sIm \mphgnep hnhn[Xcw ]mpIfpw Cu KWn s]Spp.  hS]mpIfpw sX ]mpIfpw hmsamgnhnXbpsS hnin cq]fmWv.  hS]mpIfn sXfnaebmfamWv.  sX]mpIfn Xangns AXn{]kcap aebmfamWv.  ]e Xcnep ]WnmpI, tZhXmkvXpXn]camb tXmw ]mpI, Ifsagpp]mpI apXembhbpapv.

           hcsamgnhnXbn BZyw ]cnKWnm\pXv tIcfobcmb Xangv kwLw IhnIfpsS IrXnIfmWv.    aebmfambn ]cnWanpw appff tIcf tZinse IhnIfmWh.  aebmfnse Ghpw {]mNo\amb IrXn 12mw \qmnse ]mpcq]amb cmaNcnXamWv.  {ZmhnUamb iЧ am{Xw hn\ntbmKnv FXpI,tam\ Fo {]mkhntijtfmsS Xangv coXnbnep hr hntijfnsegpXnbXmWv ]m"v .  Xangv cq]fpsS B[nIyap aebmfamWXnse `mj.  cmaNcnXns amXrIbn Dmb IrXnIfn {][m\w Annmims cmaIYm]mmWv.  (15mw iXIw).  \ncWw ]mpIhnIfmb am[hWn (`mjm`KhXvKoX), icWn (`mcXame) cmaWn (cmambWw) FnhcpsS IrXnIsf s]mXpsh IIrXnI Fp ]dbpp.  Ch ]mpcq]ns tIcfobX {]Xn^ennpp.  ]pcmWfptSbpw CXnlmkfptSbpw aebmf KmbIcmb Ch Xangnsbpw kwkvIrXnsbpw kzm[o\n \nv ]Xps ]Xps hnpt]mcnIbmbncpp.  IȡhnX ]ndsI hcp IhnIġv hgnsbmcpn.  CXnlmkIYsb CXnhrampI,]cn`mjsSppI, kwt]npI, hn]pesSppI apXemb Imcyfn \ncWw IhnI Fgp\p (16mw iXIw ) amXrIbmbnpv.  kwkvIrXnse AmX IrIamb AymcmambWs Bkv]Zamnbp AymcmambWw Infnmv, alm`mcs D]PohnpsImp alm`mcXw Infnmv,lcn\ma Io\w apXemb IrXnI P\sf [mnIambpw BkvXnIambpw DtPnnphbmWv.  cmaIYbpw IrjvWIYbpw `n\n`cambn BJym\w sNbvXv Atlw P\ġv PohnXspdnv  Xncndnhp \evIpp.  Xangv Iev \t IpdXpw kpIpamc {ZmhnU hrfm kpLSnXhpw Bb Ch aX]cambncnss atXXcamb \thmm\ns ktihpw ]Icppv. 

           B[p\nIaebmf IhnX XpSpXv Fgps `mh `mjmssienbn \nmWv.  {]mNo\a[yImeo\ IhnXbn Gsd `mKw ]mpIrXnIfmWtm.  ]mpcq]s ]qXbnsenXpw AtlamWv.  As\ Atlns Ihn kXzw aqpLfnepw hym]np InSpp. 

              Fgps IhnXbpsS Kuchw, cN\m inev]w, eyt_m[w, kmwkvImcnI Xzc Fnh sNdptcnbpsS (1560-1660) IrjvWKmYbvn.  IrjvWIY efnXhpw Gsdpsd km[mcWhpamb `mjbn Km\mIambn hn\yknncnpp.  hS aebmfns \mphg \ndXmWv tImaf cq]nepw tImaf `mhnepw apgpInb IrjvWKmY.  a[yIme aebmfn `n{]m\n, IhnXzw sImpw A\p`hm\w sImpw \nXykvacWobamWv ]qm\ns km\tKm]mew ]m\bpw m\m\bpw .   

          CXphsc ]cmain aebmf Imhy ssieo]camb sshhn[ytfmsS \m\mXcw {ZmhnU hrfn cNnhbmWv.  Fm Xangv aebmf kev]ns Imcyn B IhnIġv Xn hyXymkw Dv.  kamcambn asmcp Imhy[mcbpw ChnsS iambncpp.  AXmWv aWn{]hmfw.  aWnm\obambn aebmf ]Zfpw {]hmfm\obambn kwkvIrX ]Zfpw DNnXambn ktfnpsImpXmWv B Imhy `mj.  ]ZmhenIfpsS Imcyn am{Xa aWn{]hmfXzw.  aebmf{]IrXnItfmSv kwkvIrX{]Xyb tNpsImp {]tbmKfpw km[mcWambncpp.  ]Xnaqmw iXIn Ccw Gsd IrXnIfpmbn.  DnncptXho NcnXw, DnbmSn NcnXw, DnboNcnXw Fnh aqp kpcnamsc BkvZnpXmWv.  aWn{]hmfImhyfn Gsdpsd ka{Khpw kpchpambXv Dp\oen ktiamWv.  ImfnZmks taLZqXs A\pIcnv cNnXmWnXv. 

           an aWn{]hmfIrXnIfnepw {]tabw irwKmcamWv.  sshinIX{n (12mwiXIw ) A aIġv thiymhrnbpsS ]mT D]tZinpp.  Nt{mhw (14mw iXIw ) thiyIġv kaqlnep am\ym\w hnfw_cw sNppv.  AhcpsS cm[nImcnIfmb cmPmmcpsS Ncn{Xhpw AXn\nv hmbnsSpmw.  Ames tIcfob PohnXcoXnIsfpdnpff GItZi Ncn{Xhpw hmb\mv Inpw.  t{XtZhXm kvXpXnIfmb ]ZyIrXnIfpw Amepmbn.  15mw iXIntesXv IcpXsSp `mjmcmambWw Np (]p\w \qXncn ) anI aWn{]hmfIrXnbmWv.  KZy]mcmbWamWv Np .

           17mw iXIns a[ytmSSpv cq]sXmWv BY.  IYIfnbpsS kmlnXy]mTamWnXv.  kwkvIrXn\v apXqw sImSppsImp aWn{]hmfIrXnIfmWh.  cmambWw, alm`mcXw Fo CXnlmksf D]Pohnv cNnhbmWv an BYIfpw.  sImccpcm cmambW kw`hsf B[mcamn BYI cNnp.  _Ih[w, IeymWkuKnIw, Inoch[w, ImetIbh[w apXembhbmWv tImbpXpcms BYI.  cwKmhnjvImc]chpw Imhy`mjm]chpamb khntijXIsImv \nXy\qX\amWv DmbnhmcycpsS \fNcnXw.  mn Imhy{]kmYm\tfmSpw cwKmhnjvImctfmSpw Ieln Ip \ymcmWv Xpensbpw Xp ]mpIfptSbpw D]mXmhpw {]NmcI\pw.  lmkyns sshhn[yhpw kzct`Zfpw \nd kucymI IhnXIfmWh.  `mjbpsS P\IobXe C{Xtbsd asmcp aebmf IhnXbnepw Ism\mhn.  ]pcmWfn \nmWv Xs BJym\mIX IhnXbvv hnjb kzoIcnsXnepw Ahbnsemw kaImenIhpw `mjm]chpamb hymJym\ sNepm\pw kmhnIamb ckm`nhynv k`apmm\pw \ympIgnp.  DZm: IeymWkuKnIw , tLmjbm{X, kzaIw, k`m{]thiw.   

          Ip\ymcpsS Imetijw aebmf IhnX Ipsd Imetv aXbnembncpp.  cp ImcyfmWv CXn\p amw hcpnbXv.  Hv tIcfh henb tImbnpcms kmlnXy ]cn{ia, cv ]mmXy kmlnXy kzm[o\fpsS {]mcw`w.  henbtImbnpcm\neqsSbpmbXv mkn BNmcfpsS ]p\cpoh\amWv. bnpsImncnp ZrVoIrX kmlnXy cN\m coXnI A\phnm\p {iaw am{Xambncpp AXv.  CXns\bmWv \ntbmmknkw Fpw hnfnpXv.  KZynembncpp tImbnpcms kmlnXy ]cn{ia Gsdbpw.  BY, Np, Infnmv, ktiImhyw apXemb Imhycq]fpw Atlns kmlnXy{]h\n\v hnt[bambn.  "abpctiw" F ktiImhyamWv aembf IhnXbvp Atlns {][m\ kw`mh\.  ]mccynsbpw ]pXpabptSbpw {]hWXI Dsmhcmbncpp henbtImbnqcm\pw Atlns A\nch\mb G. B. cmPcmPhbpw (1863-1918).  IhnXbn BVymknknt\mSpw KZyn ]mmXyamXrIItfSpw B`napJyw ]pen, tImbnpcm.  cmPcmPhbmIs, ]mmXy Imev]\nIXbpsS sshiny Dsmp sImmWv Imhyw cNnXpw \ncq]W FgpXnbXpw.  IhnXbnse Hmtcm hcnbnepw BZy]Znse cmas Acw kPmXobambncnWsav (ZznXobmc{]mkw ) \n_nphsXncmbn Atlw \nesImp.  KXm\pKXnIXztmSp AXr]vXnbmWv cmPcmPh {]m\n sXfnbpXv.  iphpw kcfhpamb aebmf ImhyhmWnmbn XzcsImp shWnhnIfpw sImSpq tImhneIs ap kmlnXyImcamcpw Cu ImeLn aebmfIhnXbn AKm[amb am hcpn. 

           \apsgps\Sp `mjm{IaWt icWw Fmbncpp Ipnp Xpcms \bw.  ]aebmf IhnXm {]kvYm\mcmWv apq \mcmbWtat\m apXembh.  DZm: ]m\m, tIma apXemb IrXnI.

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         aebmfn Imev]\nI ]p\cpoh\ns ImeamWv 20mw iXIw.  Cu \qmns hgnncnhnemWv \ho\ImhyImeamcw`npXv.  "Hcp hnem]w", ""hnizcq]w"
FnhbneqsS B{]Imi\w \nhln hn.kn._meIrjvW ]Wn (1890 1915) IhnXbn hensbmcp amw hcpn. XpSp \mep]XnmpIfn `mhKoXcoXnbnemWv apnp \nXv.  sshbnI hnem]w,A`qX]qhamb {]IrXn Nn{XoIcWw, DNnXamb hmMvab Nn{Xw, hyhm]nX ImhycoXnbn \np hnXpw Omkv{Xns\ adnISpXpamb kl_ԧ, B kl_ԧfneqsSbp at\m\neIfpsS BhnjvImcw Cu X{ BkzmZIsc BIjnp.  Ipamc\mim (1873 1924 ) Dq Fkv. ]ctaizc (1877 1949), htm \mcmbW tat\m (1878 1958 ) FnhcpsS ]cn{ia  ImhycwKs tXtPmabamn.  CtXmsS hyhm]nX ImhymNcfptSbpw Aamb ss]XrInsbpw {]Xntcm[sf adnISm IhnIġv km[np.  almImhyw, ktiImhyw, IqpIhnXI, {]tlfnIm Imhy apXembh XnckvIcnm t{]cnnpXmbncpp ]mmXy{]hWXI.

           Bims  Hcp hoWqhv (1907), \fn\n (1911), eoe (1914) NnmhnjvSbmb koX (1919) Fo Imhy aebmfnbpsS `mhnIXzs hnIkzcamn.  Ahbnse _nw_, {]Imi\coXnI, at\m`mh apXembhbpsS \hyX {itbambn. " Hcp hoW]qhv " `mhpIXz]camb \thm\n\v XpSw Ipdnp.  euInI {]Wbtm A`nImayamb Hcp {]WbXeapsv  "\fn\n" A`nhyamn.  \mYs\tXSnbev kzw acWneqsS {]WbkmmXvImcw t\Sphm eoebvp Ignp.  BXynI Lnsenb koX BobkzmX{yw {]Jym]np. Hcp ]pXnb kwthZ\ns _nw_fmWnh.  Zpchbn (1922) hfsc DġmgvNtbmsS, Bim Hcp AP\hpw Hcp ]pebbphmhpw Xnep kvt\lhpw hnhml_hpw BhnjvIcnp.  Nme `npInbn (1923) _p\neqsS Abnns Aiq\yX shfnsSpn.  IcpWbn (1923) kzmXbvpw amwkf hnImcn\pw AXoXambp ImcpWytbpw Bob{]Wbtbpw Dbnmn.  Hcp aSntmI Akmyampw hn[nep ]cnh\ {]hWXIfmWv aebmfIhnXbn \ndp \nXv.  Dq \ntbmmknIv {]hWXI apnb "DamtIcfw" FgpXn.  XmaknbmsX, I`qjWw, ]nwKf Fo sNdp BJym\fpw cNnp.  Iqn ssZ\wZn\m\p`hsfpdnp `mhKoXfpw cNnp.  DZm: `qXmSn, Apw Cpw, t{]akwKoXw.

          htm BZysams apgpInbXv \ntbmmknkns BNmcfnemWv.  DZm: Nn{XtbmKw almImhyw hfsc s]sp XsbmWv Atlw ]pXnb coXnIfntev amdnbXv.  _\\mb A\ncp (1914) injy\pw aI\pw (1918) aKvZe\adnbw(1921) Fo sNdp BJym\ BkzmZIsc BIjnp.  1916 apX Atlw {]Iminnp t]m kmlnXyaRvPcn `mK h tXmXn {]Ncnp.  Ip \ymp tijw {ZmhnUhrsf IqSpX hn\ntbmKnv IhnXsb tIcfobamnbXv kmlnXyaRvPcnhnXIfmWv.  Bj`mcXaqeyfpsS DZmamb BhnjvImcfmWv Atlns ]e IhnXIfpw.  `mcXob kzmX{kacns XoWX Atlns IhnXIfnemWv A\p`hsSpXv.  adpInSp `mcXobkvacWIsf DWpI, A\p`hsf C{obthZyamn AhXcnnpI, kaImenItam Ncn{X]ctam Bb kw`hsf \mSIobamn AhXcnnpI CsXms htm IhnXbpsS {]tXyIXfmWv.  DZm: Hcp tXmWnbm{X, agbsmcp \Sw apXembh.  hmevaoIn cmambWw, Zmksbpw ImfnZmksbpw \mSI, EtKzZw Fnhbpw at\Iw ]pcmWfpw aebmfntep ]cn`mjsSpn Atlw ImhyhmWnbpsS amXrII Imnp. 

           20mw iXIns cmw ]mZnse IhnXbn Bim, htm, Dq FnhcpsS kzm[o\amWv apnp \npXv.  Fm asmcp Iqw IhnI khntijkzctmsS {]XyspIgnncpp.  \memv \mcmbW tat\m, Ipnpdv tIih \mb, sI.Fw. ]Wn, ]ův cma apXembhcmWv almIhnIġv sXmp]pdsIbp {][m\IhnI.  Pn. icpdpv, shnpfw tKm]mepdpv, ]n. Ipncma \mb, CSnn cmLh ]n, Npg IrjvWnff, sshtemnn {io[ctat\m, CStcn tKmhn \mb, ]mem \mcmbW \mb, Fw.]n. A, \mem IrjvWn apXembhcpsXmWv ASp Xeapd.  ]Xv\nbpsS acWn Zp:JnX\mbn \memv FgpXnb hnem] ImhyamWv Ip\opffn .  `mh{]Imin\v tbmPn Hcp ssien Isnb Ip\opffnbn sshbnI hnjmZhpw Zi\hpw ktfnncnpp.  hyhkmbImeLn\p app {Kmaku`mKys A\p`hsSpp {KmaoW I\yI sImpXs Ipnpdv A\izc\mbn. 

           Pn. icpdpv Imev]\nI IhnIfpsS cmw Xeapdbn IqSpX AwKoImcw t\Sn.  Atlns BZyImeIhnXIfn SmtKmdns kzm[o\w {]ISamWv.  kqcyImn bn tbmKmI( annIv) A\p`qXnI Dv.  eLpKoX, \mSIobmJym\, `mhmIkzKXmJym\ FnhbpsS cN\bn Atln\v ap IhnItfm IchncpXpv. hnizZi\w PnbpsS Zmi\nI Xzc A`nyampp.  tZiobhpw Imev]\nIhpamb [mcIfn {itb\mWv shnpfw.  kwKoXmIX, Nn{XWXzc FnhbmWv Atlns IhnXbnse {]tXyIXI.  DZm: IZfoh\w. 

           `IhnbmbnmWv ]n. Ipncma \mbcpsS  cwK{]thiw(1909 1978) XpSpff          Imefn  ]mccyaqeyfpsS ImgvNmSp ]pensmp Xs kaImenI {]iv\sf at\m[tmsS BhnjvIcnm Atln\p Ignp.  `mcXobmZi, tIcfobX, aebmfnw, tIcf {]IrXn kucyw apXembhbmWv ]n. IhnXIfpsS DSw.  DZm: XmactmWn, Ifnbѳ, ]qfw.  CSnn cmLh ]nff (1909 1936), Npg IrjvWn (1911 1948) Fnh aebmfnse Imev]\nI `mhKoXns cmPinev]nIfmWv.  Ccphcpw Htc {Kman ]ndv Gsdpsd kam\amb at\m\neI ]penbhcmWv.  1940 Ifnse aebmf IhnXbnse AXymKm[hpw A\p`qXn]qhhpamb kzm[o\inIfmWnh.  cmLh ]n BlXy sNbvXp.  Npg caW F BcWyIhnem]ImhysagpXn.  hnImchpw kwKoXmIhpw hnjmZ\n`chpamb caW Hcp s_v sk BWv.  ss\kKoIX, BmX, IhnXbpsS kzm`mhnI {]hmlw, sshImcnI Xo{hX, Zpc t_m[w apXembhbmWv CSnnhnXm {]m\ns {]tXyIXI.

           _memaWnbbpsS BZyIme IhnXI IpSpw_PohnX kw_nbmWv.  khntijamb Hcp Cy kv{Xo `mhpIXzns IhnXIfmWnh.  Fm agphns IY, hnizman{X apXemb DpdpIqSnb BJym\ IhnXIfn IqSpX BcnIXbpw Bob `mhcminIfpw {]Xn^enpp.  Imev]\nI ]ccbnse Ctebvp IhnbmWv sshtemnn.  PohnXs ka{Kambn Dsmm t]msmcp kev]\w Atlw cq]sSpn.  Atlns IhnXzinbptSbpw PohnXZi\nsbpw kq kmmXvImcamWv IpSnsbmgn.  NSpeamb BhnjvIcWcoXnI, _nw_tbmP\ Fnhbn sshtemnnbpsS IhnXzin apnp \nevpp. 

 aebmf IhnXbnse \ho\XbpsS Lw Npgbvv tijw Bcw`nXmbn \ncq]I ]dbpp. (NpgbpsS acWw : 1948). AXn hmNmeX, AXnsshImcnIX, Pocq]fpsS Bh\w FnhbmWv NpgbpsS A\pImsf A[: ]XnnXv.  Cu Ln CScn tKmhn \mbcmWv Xopw hyXykvXamb Hcp Imhyssienbn PohnXbmYmy BhnjvIcnp XpSnbXv.  `mjm]chpw `mh]chpamb ]mccyhpw tZiyamb kwkvImcnsbpw ssienbptSbpw Aht_m[hpw tafnXmWv CStcnhnX.  Atmfw ImthyXcw Fp IcpXsp t]m ]e hnjbfpw Atlw Imhyhnjbamn.  Cu ]pXnb ssienbnsegpXnbXmWv ]WnapSw , ]p Iehpw Acnhmfpw apXembh.  Ip\ocns {]IS\ambncpp IhnXbn AtXmsS inp m\w Inn.  Imev]\nI sshcpyamb Cu {]hWXbmWv F. hn. IrjvWhmcycpsS IhnXIfn IcpmnpXv.  DZm: aZncminbn Hcp kmbvw, \o IhnXI, IpsdqSn \o IhnXI, IssZh, Kmnbpw tKmUvskbpw Fnh kmaqly]cnh\w eyamp IhnXIfmWv.  hntcmtmnbpw Bt]lmkyhpw AhbpsS Poh\mWv.  Fw. tKmh  Xs sNdp IhnXIfneqsSbpw Ipmenacm, Ip \ym, t\mpIpn apXemb \o IhnXIfneqsSbpw Imev]\nIhncp {]hWXsb IqsdqSn aptmp sImpt]mbn.  Gsdpsd ss[jWnIamWv tKmhn IhnX.  hncptmnI, i]camb {]tlfnII FnhbneqsS \w A\p`hnnp Hcp coXnbmWv AXn\pXv.  HfabpsS anI IhnXIsfmw Imev]\nI hncpamWv.  \tapn sbtmse IcpWckapZnnp kmaqlnIamb BJym\fmWv Atls {itb\mpXv.  Anns {][m\Imhyinev]w Ccp]Xmw \qddmns CXnlmkamWv.  cm{ob{]Xyb imkv{Xns ASnaItfm CcItfm Bbnp sNdpmcpsS DZznamb t_m[aeamWv CXn BhnjvIcnnpXv.  _enZi\w Anns ka{Kamb asmcp IrXnbmWv. 

 cm{ob {]NcWn\mbn NpgbpsS `mjbnepw ssienbnepw FgpXnpSnb IhnbmWv ]n. `mkvIc.  ]nmev AXn \nv ]pdpt]mv Atlw kzamb A\p`haehpw ssienbpw Isn.  hbem cmahbpw H.F.hn. Ipdppw N\zpgfcnbn \nv ImhyIe Bcw`nhcmWv.  BZyImes hymtamlsf shSnbm km[nXv sshbnIm\p`htfmSp Iqdp]pem XpSnbtXmsSbmWv.  sskmnI hminbpsS m\v AKm[amb am\hkvt\lhpw kzmX{yt_m[hpw {]XnjvTnm Ahp km[np.  H.F.hn., ImfnZmk PohnXs Bkv]Zamn cNnDbn\n F Imhyw A[nImc insXnscbp kucyt_m[nsbpw kvt\lImcpWyfptSbpw {]Xntcm[amWv.  {]Xybimkv{X_ancnss Gsdpsd kzX{amb \ne]mSmWv ]p\eq _me\pw ssIsmXv.   

Poamb Imev]\nIXbn \np tamN\hpw {]Xybimkv{X _\fn  \np kzmX{yhpw AXpIfn aebmf IhnXbn cq] Cu {]hWX ]nmetpw ]Sp.  \ho\ImhyaoamwkbpsS sNdpanemfmWv CStcn, F.hn. tKmhn apXembhcpsS kao]\fn IXv.  AWncpsS Ipcpt{Xw(1961) \ho\`mhpIXzns BZys ka{Kinev]amIpp.  IhnXbpsS hyhm]nX coXnIsf ]cnXyPnhbmWv Atlns arXyp]qP, IpSpw_]pcmWw, ]IepI cm{XI apXemb IhnXI.  AWncpsS IrXnI \mephmfyfmbn {]knsSpnbnpv.   

Bq cmahbpsS  IhnXI cp`mKfmbn {]knsSpn bnpv.  ZptaZnmXpw kwkmc`mjtbmSSppXpamb Hcp ssienbn Atlw FgpXpp.  XnIpw thdnp \npXmWv Atlns ]nXrKa\w, kw{IaWw, Iymk apXemb IhnXI.  mknepw \ho\hpamb LSIfpsS DNnXkwtbmKamWv ImSns IhnX.  cq]]coWfptSXmb BZyIme IhnXIfpw Bem]\kuIpamcyhpw hnImcXovWXbp IhnXIfpw \mtSmSn an hncptmnIfm Na IhnXIfpw {itbamWv.  ]mXmfns apgw, 1963, ""IhnX"", k^eaobm{X, h{PIpew apXembhbmWv ImSns IrXnI.  am[h Ans aWnbdhnXI, Fw. F. ]meqcns t]Snsm, IenImew, kpKXIpamcnbpsS ]mhw am\hlrZbw, Xpemhj], cm{Xnag ; hnjvWp \mcmbW \qXncnbpsS ""{]Wb KoX"", ""Dbn\nbnse cmIepI"" Cu kamlmcfnsemw \ho\XbpsS Xnfapv.  NpgbpsS hgnbnqSn Gsd kcn Pn. Ipamc]n ]nmev `mhKoX]cambn kzw iw tIĸnpIbpmbn.  ]n. \mcmbWpdpv, H.Fw. A\pP, Fkv.ctai \mb, hn.a[pkqZ\ \mb apXembhcpw kzamb kw`mh\I \InbhcmWv.  Fmepw kvacWobamWv IppnbpsS \mtSmSnhgnep ""Iym]vkq"" IhnXI.

           kmaqlnIamb DġmgvNbpw ]pXp{]IcWfpw sImv kamWv ISa\nhnX.  DZm: Immf, Ipdn, im, B ]ippnbpsS acWw.  cq]]chpw `mh]chpamb km[yXI hn\nabw sNphm knZm\\v Ignp.  kaImenIhpw `mhn]chpamb DġmgvNbmepw cN\m]camb anIhn\mepw apnp\npp Ah.  Imhmew \mcmbWWn \mtSmSnanep kzX{ IhnXI Gsd FgpXnbnpv.  sI.Pn. icnff (sI.Pn. icnbpsS IhnXI), _meN{ NpnmSv (am\kmcw, {Umpf apXembh) Fnh ]pXnb `mhpIXzns {]apJhmfmWv. 

           Cs aebmf IhnX \ncc ]cnWmanemWv.  ChnsS ]cmains Hpan IhnXIfpw Cpw Cu ssNX\yhmb {]{Inbbn ]mfnIfmWv.  kaImenI IhnXbpsS ]pXnb[mcIfpw coXnt`Zfpw cq]spsImncnppapv.  hnPbevan, F. A, Un.hn\bN{, s\n apcfo[c, tZiawKew cmaIrjvW, Ip ]m\q, sI.hn. t__n, H.hn. Dj, efnXm se\n,cmhpn, ]n.]n. cmPoh, hocm Ipn, Fkv.tPmk^v, sI. B. tSmWn XpSnb Htsd IhnI Cv ImhycwKv AdnbsSppv.  Cqn Ghpw {it²b\mb Ihn  F. A\mWv.  OkvIrX ssienbn kzw at\m[fp]tbmKnv kzX{hn[m\fn FgpXphcpw X\n kwkmcKZyn BcnIamb Xmfhpw hnImckwKoXhpw ]pen FgpXphcpw Dv.  kzXzkwLjnsbpw kmaqlnIamb DIWvTIfptSbpw t\hgnIfmWv kaImenIaebmf IhnXbn {]Xn^enpXv. 

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