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aebmf t\mh

tUm. ]n.sI.cmPtiJc

 
 

  

    ]sm]Xmw \qmns ayn\p tijw tIcfnepmb kmaqlnIhpw kmaqlnIhpw cm{obhpw hnZym`ymk]chpamb am P\Iobhpw aX\nct]hpw Imhy]ccy`nhpamb KZyns cq]sSen\p hgnsXfnp.  CXns `mKambnmWv t\mh,sNdpIY Fo kmlnXyP\ppI Bhn`hnXv.  t\mh krnm\pff {iafn \nv bYm t\mhentep FntcemWv ]sm]Xmw \qmn \SXv.

  Cu {]{Ibsb cpLfmbn Xncnmw.  1847 1887 ;1889 1897 Fns\ .  1847 1887  Ln \S bXv\fpsS ^eambn ]{p IYmJym\IrXnI Dmbn.  Bv Uo tIminbpsS ]ctZin tambm{X (1847) apX Ap s\SpmSnbpsS IpeX (1887) hscbphbmWv Cu IrXnI.  t\mhepIsfv Cu cN\Isf hnfnm\mhn. 

   1889 BWv BZys aebmf t\mh ]pdphXv H. Nptat\ms CpteJ 1847 87 Imes IrXnI tIhew KZyIYmJym\tfm AXn\pthnbp Zp_eamb DZyatfm BWv.  {InkvXp aX{]NmcWw, ]cn`mj XpSnb eyfmbncpp Ahbvp ]nn.  Fm CpteJ  t\mhens LS\m]chpw emhWy]chpamb khntijXIsfmw {]ISnnp.

    tPm _\ys ]n{Knwkv t{]m{Kkn (16781684)\v Bv Uo tImin Xmdmnb ]cn`mjbmb ]ctZin tambm{X (1847) CtXIrXnp s dh.kn.aq Xmdmnb ]cn`mjbmb kmcnbpsS {]bmWw (1847), ImfnZmks imIpfn\v XncphnXmwIq almcmPmhmbncp imIpfn\v XncphXmwIq almcmPmhmbncp Bbneyw Xncp\m cmah \Snb KZy]cn`mjbmb `mjmimIpfw (185060 Imen\nSv)  Hcp Ad_nY sb  B[mcamn Bbneyw Xncp\m cNn ao\tIX\ (185060) ,tPm _\ys tlmfnhmdn\v Bv Uo tIminbpsS ]cn`mjbmb Xncptmcmw (1865).  sjbvIvkvnbdpsS tImaUn Hm^v Ftdfvkv \v Iq D ^nentmkv \evInb KZycq]amb Bamdmw (1866), annv tImfnkv tIcfob ]mmen CwojnsegpXnb    tsb sbn (1864) F IrXnbpsS aebmf cq]amb LmXIh[w (1877), Bv Uo tIminbpsS kzX{IrXnbmb ]ptennp (1882), Nmkv em_qw tacn em_pw tNv CwojnsegpXnb tjIvkv]nb IYIfn \nv Akvbpssev Cn \v Imamo Ncn{Xw F t]cnepw hntUgvkv sSbven\v   hjImeIY F t]cnepw sI. NnZw_chmcy \Inb (Imew 1880 1885)aebmfcq], l ImXssd ayqenkns ^yqtam\nbpw IcpWbpw(1884), Ap s\SpmSnbpsS IpeX (1887) 1847 87 Imepmb apJy KZyIYmJym\. 

          CpteJ bpsS {]knoIcWtmsS aebmfn t\mhens Imew Bcw`np.  {_nojv km{amPy hvgvNbpsS ^eamb sImtfmWnb B[p\nIXbpambp A`napJoIcans ^eambncpp CpteJ , CpaXo kzbwhcw (]Snmsd tIhneIv Ama cmPm,1890), ao\mn (kn.Nmp\mb1890) ammh (kn.hn. cma ]n,1891) kckzXo hnPbw(t]mcn Ipp, 1892) ]cnjvmcmXn (sImpsXm Atmnncn, 1892) ]dtmSo ]coWbw (Ingtmv cmatat\m, 1892) imcZ (H.Nptat\m, 1892) eIvjvao tIihw (tImamn ]mUptat\m, 1892) , \mept]cnsemcp (kn. Ambn, 1893) AIv_ (tIcfh henbtImbnpcm,1894 hnh\w) kpIpamcn (tPmk^v aqfnbn,1897) FnhcmWv 19#mw \qmnepmb  ap t\mhepI.  Chbn imcZ, ammh, ]dtmSo ]coWbw, kckzXo hnPbw Fo IrXnIġmWv kmlnXyNcn{X]chpw kmaqlnIhpamb aqeyaqXv. 

          CpteJ ]pdph 1889 apX 1920 hscbp Imev \qdn Xmsg t\mhepI am{XamWv {]kooIcnsXv.  1920 1940 Imebfhn \m\qdne[nIw t\mhepI ]pdphp.  1940 ItfmsS nXn amdn.  t\mh cN\bpw {]Nmchpw hnpIbpw AXv P\{]nb am[yaambn XocpIbpw sNbvXp.  bYmXY kmlnXy(dnbenkw ) ns Bhn`mhambncpp CXn\p ImcWw.

 Ccp]Xmw \qmns BZyZiIfn \nch[n t\mhepI Dmsbnepw Ahbn ]eXn\pw kmlnXyNcn{X]camb aqeyw am{XamWv CpffXv.  Fm kn.hn. cma ]nbpsS t\mhepI {]ImitKm]pcfmbn Dbp \npp.  XncphnXmw Iqdns Ncn{Xw B[mcamn aqp t\mhepI kn.hn. cNnp.  ammh (1891), [cmPm (1917) , cmacmP_lpZq (1920).  Chbvp]pdta t{]amarXw F kmaqlnI t\mhepw AtlntXmbpv.  aebmfnse Fmetbpw anI t\mhepIfmbmWv [cmPm bpw cmacmPm_lZqdpw KWnsSpXv.   

          Ccp]Xmw \qmns BZyZiIfn Dmb t\mhepIfn anhbpw H.Nptat\msbpw kn.hn.bptSbpw IrXnIfpsS GsXnepw hn[nep A\pIcWfmWv.  Nne IrXnI Cqn thdnp\npp.  sI.\mcmbWpcpfpsS ""]mdpdw"", ""DZb`m\p"", Imcmv ANyqXtat\ms ""hncpX ip"", A Xpcms ""`qXcmb"" (aebmfnse BZys A]kI t\mh ) XpSnbh DZmlcWw.  GXm\pw Ncn{Xt\mhepIfpw Cu Imebmfhnepmbn.  ""tNcam s]cpam"" (I\ IrjvW tat\m). ""AarX ]pfn\w"" (]Wp cma), ""tIctfizc"" (Sn. cma \oi), ""hphmc"" (Fw. B. sI.kn), ""_mjv] hjw"" (C.hn.IrjvWn),    ""]dnSbmfn"" (kZm sI.Fw. ]Wn)

 hn bqtKmbpsS ]mh, \memp \mcmbWtat\m hnh\w sNbvXXv (1925).  t\mhens\ kw_n ]pXnbt_m[w Cu ImeLn DWn.  kmaqlnI\oXnsbpdnpff \ho\mibfpw t\mhens\ kzm[o\nm XpSn.  \\zqXncn kapZmbnse hnhmlkw_nbmb Nne BNmcsf hnai\ hnt[bamnb apncntmSp `h{XmX \qXncnmSns A]v^s aI (1932) CXns ^eambncpp. 

1940 I apX aebmft\mh ]cnh\ns cwKthZnbmbn.  tZiob kzmX{ kacw, IayqWnkns hym]\w, tIkcn _meIrjvWn krn ]mmXy kmlnXymht_m[w ,temIbpw, imkv{Xnepw am\hnIivkv{Xfnepapmb ]pXnbNnm[mcI Fnhsbmw t\mhens\ kzm[o\np.

 tIcfob PohnXbmYmytmSv ASpp\np t\mhepIsfgpXm\pff A`nhmRvP FgppImcn Xo{hambn.  As\bmbncpp bYmXY {]m\(dnbenkw) ns Bhn`mhw.  Pnnsbpw PmXnhyhkvXbptSbpw `mchpw kzmX{kacw DbnnSn tZiobXmt_m[hpw amIvknkns hKhoWhpw ImhycwKp {]_eambncp Imev]\nIXbpw DssSbp koamb cm{ob kmwkvImcnI ImemhbnemWv dnbenpI FgpXnbXv. 

]n.tIihtZhv, XIgn inhicn, sshw aplZv _jo, Fkv.sI. s]mmSv, Ddq_v( ]n.kn. IpnIrjvW) FnhcmWv Ghpw {][m\s bYmXY t\mhsegppIm.  kmaqlnIbmYmyns bYm Nn{Xw, P\Iqb `mjbn AhXcnnpI FXmbncpp dnbenpIfpsS eyw.  Cu Imebfhn Fgpv kac{]Jym]\pw FgppImc ]ucakqlns Kncn{]`mjI\pambn. 

 tIihtZhns HmSbn \nv (1944), _jodns _meyImekJn (1944) FnhbmWv bYmXY t\mhens hchdnbnXv.  XIgnbpsS tXmnbpsS aI (1947), cnSgn (1949), s]msmSns hnjI\yI (1948) XpSnb IrXnItfmsS bYmXY t\mh thmcpdp.  ]noSp hjfnemWv Cu FgppImcpsS anI IrXnI ]pdp hXv.  sXmgnemfnIfpw IjIcpw sXnIfpw thiyIfpw IYm]m{XfmhpIbpw kmam\yPohnXw {]ytabamhpIbpw sNbvXp bYmXY t\mhen. \Sn{`mmebw , ImSn, duUn, Abm XpSnbhbmWp tIihtZhns {][m\ t\mhepI. 

 XymKns {]Xn^ew (1934) apX Hcp FcnS (1990) hscbp apXne[nIw t\mhepIsfgpXnb XIgn inhicn BJym\ Iebvp auenIamb hlyXnbm\ \In.  sNo, GWnSnI, Ib FnhbmWp XIgnbpsS Ghpw anI t\mhepI.  bYmXY kmlnXyn Xs hyXykvXambn hgn XncbpIbmbncpp _jo.  ]etmgpw t\mhens hyhm]nX eW ewLn _jo Btm]lmkn\pw ]cnlmkn\pw {]m[m\yw \In.  XoWamb kmaqlnI hnai\w B t\mhepIfpsS kz`mhambncpp.  pmmsmcmt\mp, apopIfnmcs aI, PohnX \ngmSpI, i_vZ, aXnepI, ]mpbpsS BSv XpSnbhbmWv _jodns {][m\ t\mhepI.   

 kmaqlnIbYmXen \np Imev]\nI bYmXYyntep \op FgppImcs\bmWv Fkv.sI.s]mmn ImWm\phpI.  Hcp sXcphns IY (1960), Hcp tZins IY (1971) Fo t\mhepI Cu ]cnWmans tcJIfmWv.  kmaqlnI bmYmyns Nn{XoIcWtmsSmw hyn a\ns sshNn{Xġpw {]m[m\yw \evInbhbmWv Ddq_ns IrXnI.  Dmp, kpcnIfpw kpcamcpw (1958) FnhbmWv Ddq_ns anI IrXnI. 

dnbenkns kaqlNn{XW coXnbnepw ]c BJym\ k{Zmbnepw \np hgnamdm\pff {ia Bcw`npXv Ddq_ns t\mhepIfneqsSbmWv.  am\knIPohnXn\pw hynXzkhntijXIġpw t\mhen {]m[m\yw ssIhp.  BJym\ coXnbnepw amapmbn. Cu cN\mcoXnbpsS {]Xn\n[nIfmWv t]mnc dm^n (kz ZqX), sI.kptc{ (ImpIpcv, amb, Pzme ), hnemkn\n ( Dum, Npsen, CWm InI, AhIminI) efnXmw_nI AP\w ( An kmn ). \\m ( Bmhns t\mhpI), ]mdpdv ( Ac\mgnI t\cw, ]Wn Xocm hoSv ) XpSnbh. 

bYmysbpw a\pjym\p`htfbpw ]n bYmXY t\mh AhXcnn hoWamXrIIfn \npff hyXnbm\amWv 1950 \p tijap  t\mhens khntijX.  1960 apX Cu `mhpIXzmcow t\mhen thcpdp.  aebmf t\mhens Cu DcLs aqp [mcIfmbn Xncnmw ; ]qhm[p\nIX, B[p\nIX, Dcm[p\nIX.

 Fw.Sn. hmkptZh \mb, cmPevan, kn.cm[mIrjvW, F.]n.aplZv, aebmq cmaIrjvW, bp.sI.JmZ, ]n. hXvke, tImhne XpSnbh BZy[mcbn DsSpp.  B[p\nI`mhpIXzns {]cw`IncW Fw.SnbpsS t\mhepIfn ImWmsanepw Imev]\nI bmYmyw Fp hnfnmhp {]hWXbmWv Atlw DssSbp Cu Xeapdbnse t\mhenpIfpsS cN\IfnepXv.  Fw.Sn.bpsS \mepsIv Akpchnv, av, Imew XpSnbIrXnI khntijamb BJym\ssienbnepw t\mh k]hpw AhXcnnp.

 Imev]\nI bmYmYyns `mhpIXz ]cnkcp \np sImv amdp kmaqlnI PohnXnsbpw koXI BhnjvIcnm {ian t\mhenpIfmWv F.]n. aplZv (acw, lncWyIin]p, FmSw, ssZhns Iv), aebmq cmaIrjvW (thcpI, bn, b{w, s\q aTw), kn.cm[mIrjvW (]pg apX ]pg hsc, ]pnpenIfpw shn \{Xfpw , kv]am]n\nItf \n, apt ]dp ]nI ) ]n. he (s\v, Btbw, Nmth, ]mfbw. Iqa sImn ) X#pSnbh.   

Cu `mhpIXzmcon \nv B[p\nIXbpsS coXn ]Xnbntepff kw{Iaw hyampp.  hn.sI.F, tImhne FnhcpsS t\mhepI. tXm, GgmsaS, lnamebw, XIw XpSnbhbmWp tImhnes {][m\ t\mhepI.  Bt] lmkynepsS B[n\nI cm{ob kaplns hnai\w \nhlnpp hn.sI. Fns IrXnI ( BtcmlWw, ]nXmal, P\d Nmkv, A\cw, IpSn\ocv, Imhn ). 

 1960 IfpsS Ahkm\tmsSbmWv B[p\nIXm {]m\w Bcw`npXv.  {]tabXen hn[nsbpdnp Aip`m]vXn hnizmkw, An\pw AkvXnXzns Xr]vXnIcamb ImcWn\pw thnb Bcmb, kzXz{]Xnkn, PohnX \ncmkw XpSnbhbpw apnp \np B[p\nI t\mhepIfn.  H.hn.hnPbs Jkmns CXnlmkw (1969) BWv B[q\nI t\mhens Bhn`mhw hyambn AdnbnXv.  [ ]pcmWw , KpcpkmKcw , a[pcw Kmb{Xn,{]hmIs hgn,XeapdI FnhbmWv hnPbs ap t\mhepI.

Im\mS (kmn, AXbpsS Xmgvhc), Fw. apIp (Zln, agnpgbpsS Xocfn, lcnZzmdn aWnI apgpp) B\v (Bġqw, A`bmnI, acWkn^nv , acp`qanI DmIpXv), tkXp ( ]mh]pcw, \ntbmKw ) ]p\n Ipp  (kvamcI ineI, acpv) ]n. ]ZvacmP (s]cphgnbew,CXm ChnsS hsc, DZItmfI) amSv IppIp ( Aizmamhv, {`v) taXn cm[mIrjvW ( kqcyhwiw, {_m) XpSnbh B[p\nIXbnse {][m\ t\mhenpIfmWv.  apIpsbpw B\nsbpw ]nevIme IrXnI B[p\nIXbn \np hnImkw tcJsSpn.  hyn tI{nXambncpp B[p\nIXbpsS BZyLw.

 emhWymIXbvp {]m[m\yw \Inb Cu Ln \np hyXnbm\amWv B[p\nI t\mhens cmw apJw.  1980 Ifnembncpp Cu {]hWX Bcw`nXv.  BZyImem[p\nIXbpsS BtI{oIXzs amnsbgpXm\p {iaambncpp AXv.  B\ns Dcmb\w (1982), A`bmnI (1984), acp`qanI DmIpXv (1989), H.hn.hnPbs []pcmWw (1985) kn.hn._meIrjvWs Bbpns ]pkvXIw (1984) kn.B.]ctaizcs {]IrXn \nebw (1984) XpSnb IrXnI B[p\nIm\camb Hcp `mhpIXzns BZyeWfmWp {]ISnnpXv.   

          1990 ItfmsS Cu `mh\m]cnh\w ]qambn.  Dcm[p\nIXbpsS LamWv CsXp ]dbmw.  Fw. apIps BZnXy\pw cm[bpw ap Nnecpw (1993), Hcp ZfnXv bphXnbpsS IZ\IY (1996), tIihs hnem] (1999), \rw (2000), sI.sP. t__nbpsS amthenaw (1991), kn.hn. _meIrjvWs Bmhn\p icnsbp tXmp Imcy (1997), Zni (2001),F. {]`mIcs _lphN\w (1998), Xobq tcJI (1999),  Sn.hn. sImp_mh bpsS hrkZ\w (1993), sI.]n.cma\pnbpsS kq^n ]d IY (1992), Nca hmjnIw , sI. cLp\mYs `qanbpsS s]mn (1992), imbau\w (1997), kam[m\n\p thnbp bp(2001), B\ns hymk\pw hnLvt\izc\pw (1996) tKmh\s bm{XI (1995) A]lcns ssZh (2001),  kmdm tPmk^ns BemlbpsS s]a (2001), ammn (2003) , F.Fkv.am[h  e _tcnbnse epn\nbI (2003) XpSnb \nch[n IrXnI t\mhens amdnb apJw shfnsSppp.

  

 
 

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