:: Back :: Home ::  
 

aebmf kmlnXy hnai\w

tUm. Un. _an

 
 

 

 Cp \mw hnhnp Xcnep kmlnXy hnai\ns BZyamXrI aebmfn {]XysSpXv 1890 {]knoIcWamcw`n kmlnXyamknIbmb hnZymhnt\mZn\nbnemWv.  ]{Xm[n]cmbncp kn.]n. ANypXtat\m\mWv "]pkvXI ]cntim[\" F t]cn kmlnXy \ncq]Wns ]wn ssIImcyw sNbvXncpXv.  `mcXobImhyNnbn AhKmlapmbncp ANyqXtat\m\v ]mmXy kmlnXyknmfpw Hsms ]cnNnXambncpp.  kmlnXyns {]Xy eyw BlvfmZnnepw BXynIeyw IrXymIrXyhnthN\w \evIepamsWv hnizkn Atlw hyamb ImhyXzfpsS ASnm\nemWv hnai\w \SnbXv.  A\pIcW{]hWXtbmSpw imUw_ctmSpw AklnjvWpX Imnb Atlw FgppImc Gsd {intXv ANmcpXbnemsWv hmZnp.  kmlnXytasb lrZb]qw BZcn Atlw aqmwXcw IrXnIsf lnwkmIambns hnainp. 

  Amev aebmfkmlnXythZn ASnhmWncp tIcfh henbtImbnpcm, Hcp hnaiIs\Xnt\m DZmca\kvI\mb kmlnXy]pckvImhmbncpp.  `mjmt]mjnWn k`bpsS hbw (1911) ktf\nsegpXnhmbn {]_hpw Xncph\]pcw almcmPmkvBvkv tImsfPnse kmlnXykamPn Byw hlnpsImp \Snb D]kwlmc {]`mjWhpamWv hnaimIamb am\fph Fp ]dbmw.  aebmf kmlnXyns XXvImemh hnebncpn AXns kw`h _lpapJamb hnImkn\pam\ntinpIbmWv BZy{]_ԯn.

ZznXobmc{]mkns\Xnsc sI.kn.tIih]n Dbn hmZġp adp]Sn \In, Cu {]mkns {]kn hmZnp kanpIbmWv  D]kwlmc {]`mjWn.

          aebmfkmlnXynse BZys {itbamb A`ncpNnkwLjambncpp ZznXobmc{]mkhmZw.  Hcp tmIns \mep]mZnsebpw cmas Acw HpXsbmIWtam F _meniamb tNmZynemWv AXmcw`nsXnepw B N IhnXbnse cq]`mhka\zbspdnp Nnbmbn hnIknp.  {]mk\ncmk hmZn\v, ]tcmt\XrXzw \Inb G.B.cmPcmPh BXynIambn AhXcnnXv DXvIr IhnXsbpdnp mkn Zi\amWv. {]tabns \hXzhpw KpcpXzhpw, BhnjvImcns kpe\w CmcyfnemWv AtlaqnbXv.  Atlw Xs \fNcnXhymJym\ns\gpXnb ZoLamb AhXmcnI Nnbmb AmZanI hnai\ns amXrIbmWv.  Fm Bims koXbvsgpXnb {lkzamb AhXmcnIbn amdp Imhym`ncpNntbmSv kwhZnm Ignbp en_d at\m`mhw ImWmw. 

          Cu Imebfhns, ]{X]wnIfn {]Xys Ipd[nIw hnaiIcpv.  kztZim`nam\n cmaIrjvW ]n Sn.sI. IrjvW tat\m, A Xpcm, aqtmp Ipamc, kn. Ambn XpSnbhcmWh. cm{obImcyfn XnI DXv]XnjvWp hmbncp kztZim`nam\n, kmlnXyhnai\n Hv bmYmkvXnIamb \ne]mSmsWSpXv.  kmlnXy_mlyamb t{]cWI Atlns hnai\sf \ndw ]nSnnp F Bt]hpw IgnmX.  AmZaobamb ]mnXya, efnXamb klrZbXzhpw iamb B{]XnIcWaXbpamWv aqtmns hnai\fpsS apJap{Z.  Bim IhnXbpsS hyXncn `wKnbntemZyw shfnw hoinb hnaiI\pw aqtmv Xs.  lmtkym]\ymkImc F \nebvv {]ikvX\mb Ipncma \mbcpsS Nne D]\ymk, D]cnhamb kmlnXobXXz]cmai sImv \ncq]Wtm SSpp \npp Fp ]dbmw. 

          aebmfhnai\n\v ]mnXyns Icppw KthjWns Kuchpam hnaiI\mWv kmlnXy]m\ ]n. sI. \mcmbW]n.  {]mNo\ IhnIfn {]apJcmb sNdptcn, Fgpѳ, Ip \ym Fnhscpdnv khIemimemXen \Snb ]ntXmNnXamb {]`mjWfmWv ]nmev ]pkvXIcq]n {]IminXambXv.  Cu IhnIsfbpw AhcpsS Imesbpw IrXnIsfbpw Ipdnp hniZ]T\ns ]men, IhnIsf \nebvp AhcpsS hyXncnXI NsNpIbmWv Atlw sNbvXXv.  hnai\tm KthjWns AwiamWv Gdn\npsXnepw ChcpsS ImhyIeIfpsS A\\yamb {]hWXI hniIe\w sNpXn Atlw hnPbnp. Fm mkn Imhym`ncpNnbn _ambntmb ]n.sI.bvv kaIme kmlnXytmSv cN\mIambn {]XnIcnm Ignn.  ]m\\s kaImeo\cmb hnaiIcn {]apJcmWv Bq IrjvWnjmcSn, hSpwIq cmPcmPh, sI.Fw. ]Wn, sF.kn. Nmtm XpSnbh. 

           tIcfns kmwkvImcnI \thmYm\ns Npm ]nSn tIkcn _meIrjvW]nff aebmf kulrZXzs hnizkmlnXyns imZzefntev Iqnsmp t]mbn.  Ncn{Xhpw a\mkv{Xhpw `uXnIimkv{Xhpsams kmlnXy ]T\n\p Bib`qanIbpsS LSIfmImsatlw t_mysSpn.  hn{Kl`RvPI at\m`mhtmsS kmlnXynse m]nX k]sfbpw [mcWIsfbpw XnckvIcn tIkcn kmXbvp Iev]nsncp ZnhyXzns ]cnthjamXmn.  hnizkmlnXyns ]men ]etmgpw XmcXaymIambn aebmf FgppImsc Atlw hnebncpn.  kaZin, {]t_m[I, tIkcn Fo ]{XfneqsSbmWv Atlw Xs kmlnXobhpw kmaqlnIhpw cm{obhpamb hnai\ \SnbXv.  kmlnXyIrXnsb AXns Dtis ap\nn hnebncppIbpw kmtXnIambn hIXncnpIbpw sNbvX Atlns hn[n{]kvXmh XnIpw kqIvjaambncpsp ]dpIqsSnepw, A`ncpNn kwkvIcWn Atlns hnai\w hln ]v \nmbIamWv.

          tIkcnv sXmp]nmse FnbhcmWv Fw.]n. t]mfpw tPmk^v aptcnbpw.  kmlnXyns kmaqlnIam\sbpw kucyXesbpw ka\zbnm {ian Fw.]n. t]mfns {][m\ kw`mh\ Atlw t\mhen\pw sNdpIYbvpw FgpXnb eW {K٧fmWv.  Cy ]mccyn\p Xs A]cnNnXambncp kucyimkv{Xns ASnm\XXzfmWv kucy\ocoWn N sNpXv. kn.hn.bpsS ammh tbbpw _jodns _meyImekJntbbpw Ipdnv Atlw {itbamb \ncq]W \Sn.  amIvknb kzm[o\bn cq]w sIm ]ptcmKa\ {]m\ns t\Xr\ncbn \n t]mfn\v kmlnXyns IemIXbpsS Imcyn hnphogvNbvp XmdmImXp sImp am{Xw B {]m\w hnpt]mtIn hp. 

          kmlnXyhpw PohnXhpw Xnep _w hmZnv DdnpIbpw \ntbmmknIv `mhpIXztmSv Iem]w IqpIbpw sNbvX hnaiI\mWv tPmk^v aptcn.  aqamb PohnXns \mSIobamb BhnjvIcWamIWw DakmlnXysap hmZn Atlw FgppImcs ImgvNmSv ]ptcmKa\]camIWsapw iTnp.  ]mmXyhpw ]uckvXyhpamb ImhyXXzsf XtXmb ImgvNmSn ka\zbnm\pw Atln\p Ignp.  aptcnbpsS anI hnai\ Ihn{XbspdnpXmWv.  Xs ImhymZins kmmXvImcw Bim IhnXbn I aptcn htmfns tZiobXsb hmgvpIbpw DqhnXsb AXns \ntbmmkn {]hWXIfpsS t]cn XnckvIcnpIbpw sNbvXp.  ]ptcmKa\]camb ImgvNmSnt\msSmw `{Zamb cq]hpw IebvpmIWsa hmZamWv ]ptcmKa\{]m\mcpsS Zrnbn Atls A\`naX\mnbXv. aebmfIhnXbn Imev]\nI hnhn\v sskmnIamb ]n_ew \IpIbpw tkmjyenv dnbenksIpdnp hoWahXcnnpIbpw sNbvX aptcnv ]nevmev IhnXbn kw`hn `mhpIXz]cnWmaw Dsmm Ignn.  IYmIam `mhKoXs Atlw XnckvIcnp.  Adp]XpIfn in{]m]n \ho\IhnXtbmSv Atlw i{XpX]pen.  kmlnXyhnNmcs PohnXtmSv ]camh[n _nnpIbpw hoW]cambn Hcp en_d lyqa\nns \ne]mSv kzoIcnpIbpw sNbvX hnaiI\mWv aptcn. kmlnXyw ]pcpjm km[IamIWsa `mcXob ImhyNnIcpsS ]mccyw AwKoIcn IpnIrjvWamcm AXv tIheamb Hcp Iebspw PohnXs kw_n Adnhp ]Icp Hcp hnZymhn`mKamsWpw hmZnp.  Cu hnZybn kwthZ\aXbvp thn tNp Hgnhmm\mhm IemWv Iemiw.  AXpsImpXs kmlnXys IebpsS am\Zާ sImpam{Xw hnebncpm\mhn.  FgppImcs am\knIPohnXns KpW]chpw KW]chpamb \nehmcamWv kmlnXyIrXnsb Afm\p ]ngbvm am\Zsapatlw knmnp.  Fnepw \ncq]I kmlnXyspdnv hn[n{]kvXmhnpn.  kmlnXyspdnp Xs ]]mXwhmZnp kanpItb sNppp.  Cu {]tXyImn kmlnXyhnai\n\v ]]mX]camImsX \nhrnbn.  kmlnXyspdnv Db mkn A`ncpNn ]penb amcm alm`mcX k`fpsS Zmi\nIamb s]mcp N sNp `mcX]cyS\ns t]cnemWv Gsd {]ikvX\mbXv.  hmevaoInbpsS cmas\pdnpw, ImfnZmks imIpfspdnpw FgpXnb {]_ԧfpw kzIobhoWw sImv AXyw {itbamWv.  GXpIrXnbnepw mknpIfpsS `mhKuchw t\Snb amcmv Npg DssSbp kaIme IhnIsf AdnmZcnm IgnbmsX t]mbn.  Cmcyn kmlnXy]m\\t\bpw aptcntbbpw t]mse ITn\amb `mhpIXz {]XnknbmWv, amcmcpw A`napJoIcnXv.  ]gpXSp bpn hnNmcamWv amcmcpsS \ncq]WfpsS inbpw Zueyhpw. 

          \ Cwojv ]cnm\ap kpIpam AgotmSns `mhpIXzns thcpI Cy ]mccynepw kwkvIrXnepamWv BgvndnbncnpXv.  Hntesd `mhpIXz ]cnWmaġv kmnbmIptmgpw Atlns A`ncpNn mkn \ntbmmkn `mhpIXzn _ambncpp.  Imev]\nI IhnIfmb Pnsbbpw Npgtbbpw Dsmm\tln\p IgnbmsX t]mbXv AXpsImmWv.  Pnbvv Ihnsb \nebvv kzamb hhpw hebpsamcnepapmbncpnspw NpgbpsS caW aebmf Imev]\nIXbpsS PoXbmWp ImpsXpw hmZn Atlw ]ptcmKa\ {]m\ns ImgvNmSnt\bpw Xffnfp.  Hcp ]t AgotmSns Ghpw anI kw`mh\ Bims koXmImhyw" Bbncnpw.  {]`mjW]cXbptSbpw "sktkjWenk" nsbpw {]hWXI hnai\n IecpXpw AgotmSneqsSbmWv. 

          ImgvNmSns Imcyn Chcn \nsmw hn`n\mbncpp tUm.sI. `mkvIc \mb. sskmnIambn Hcp tIhekucyhmZnbmbncpp Atlw. Bibw IhnXbnse IemsWpw kmlnXyapssS kakvXIeIfptSbpw ASnm\XXzw XmfamsWpsams hmZn Atlw kn.hn. kmlnXys hnebncpnbtm Zmi\nIamb Hcp ImgvNmSmWv kzoIcnXv.  AsXmbmepw amcmscbpw aptcntbbpw t]mep Icpmcmb hnaiIcpsS ]e sskmnI \ne]mSpIfpw cq]sXv `mkvIc\mbcpsS hmZtfmSp \ntj[mIamb {]XnIcWsf \nebvmWv. 

          kaNnXbpw kpenXXzhpamWv Kp]vX \mbcpsS hnai\fpsS apJap{Z.  kXysatmgpw ayamnemsW Dd [mcW AXnhmZfn \npatls AIn\npp.  hnai\n [manIXbpsS HcngIqSn CWntm Ign Atlns `mj kzXbpw sXfnabpapXmWv. 

          tIkcn apX s{]m^. Kp]vX \mb hscbp hnaiI Hcpanv AcpXI AmemWv Ghpw ssNX\yhpw AKm[Xekv]inbpamb BibkwhmZ aebmfhnai\n kw`hnXv.  kmlnXyns ASnm\ kakyIsfpdnpffXmbn cpp B kwhmZ. 

          GXmntXImeLns ]{X]wnIfn {]Xysp XpSnb Ipd[nIw hnaiIcpv.  kaImekmlnXytmSv kmIambn {]XnIcnm Ign kn. Fkv.\mbcpsS ASnm\inWw kwkvIrX]mccyntXmbncpp.  Fm tZiobamb ImgvNmSpw klPamb kucy]]mXhpw Atls htm IhnXbpsS Bcm[I\mn. bqtdm]y kmlnXy hnai\nse {][m\ kao]\t`Z ]cnNbsSppXnemWv, Ddpaokv XcI {inXv.  \mSIIrpw NnI\pamb kn.sP. tXmakv kmlnXyhnaiI FXnt\m PohnXhnaiI\mbncpp.  Fnepw aebmf \mSIthZnsbpdntlsagp Xnb Dbcp bh\nI aebmfhnai\n\p \evInb auenIamb kw`mh\bmWv.  ]mmXykmlnXyknmsf Ahew_amn kmlnXykmtXnI ambn kao]n hw Ap JmZdmWv Pn.icpdpns\pdnv BZys hnai\ {Kw cNnXv.  kmlnXyhnai\s BibNbpw kmwkvImcnIhnai\hpampIbmWv Ipnpg IrjvWn sNbvXXv.  kmlnXymkzmZ\nt\sd Du \evInb klrZb\mb \ncq]I\mWv Dmn tKmhn Ipn\mb.  kqvaamb DġmgvNbpw {]kmZmIamb hoWhpw Fw. B. \mbcpsS kmlnXy\nIjnse D]\ymksf hyXykvXampp. Cwojv kmlnXy]cnm\hpw sXfn klrZbXzhpamWv ]n. ic \ymcpsS \ncq]WfpsS ASnd.  kmlnXyhnhmZfn Iiamb \ne]mSpIsfSppXneqsS {i]nSnsSp \ncq]I\mWv Un.]n. Dn. 

          hnai\nse Aym]IkmnyamWv s{]m^. F. IrjvW]nbpw,Fw.ANypX\pw,sI.Fw.XcI\pw,tUm.Fw.eoemhXnbpw sI.Fw.Um\ntbepw tUm.sI.F. Fgp\pw, tUm. Fkv.sI. hk\pw A\p`hsSpncpXv.  kmlnXyNcn{XImc IqSnbmb F.IrjvW]n FgppImsc AhcpsS hyXncnXIfneqn hnebncppXn Akm[mcWamb ssh`hw {]ISnnp.  Bim IhnXsgpXnb hn]peamb AhXmcnIIfneqsS "s]cp" s\gpXnb \ncq]Whpw Atlns anI kw`mh\IfmWv.  kn.hn.bpsS t\mhepIfnse ]m{X`mjWspdnsgpXnb ]T\w aebmfnse Hs hnai\{KamWv.  [mcmfamsbgpXnb sI.Fw.XcI Bgfne, ]cnemWv Gsd {inXv.  Ddq_ns\pdnp Atlns hnai\w hnhcWmIhpw hkvXpXm]chpamWv.  KthjIs at\m`mhtmsS {]mNo\hpw kaImeo\hpamb kmlnXys kao]n tUm.sI.F. Fgps BZyImehnai\fn amIvknb BibfpsS {]`mhw hfsc {]ISamWv.  Fw.ANypXs {][m\ kw`mh\ aebmfsNdpIYbpsS hnai\mI Ncn{XamWv. "kzmX{ykachpw aebmfkmlnXyhpw" IqSpX KthjW {]m[m\amWv.  Fw.sI. km\phns hnai\{]_ԧsfm {itbw Ipamc\mimsbpw NpgbptSbpw PohNcn{XfmWv.  PohnXhnImkns hniZamb `qanIbn AhcpsS kmlnXykw`mh\I hnebncpm\p {iaw hensbmcfthmfw k^eambncnpp.  AKm[amb ]mnXyhpw bpnhnNmcioehpamWv sI.Fw. Um\nbens ssIapX.  \fn\nsb tI{oIcnv aebmfImev]\nI IhnXbpsS hnImkw hniIe\w sNpXv "\hN{Ihmfw \fn\n" bmepw apw F IrXnbpw kucyimkv{Xkw_nbmb XXz hniIe\w sNp "IemZi\hpw" FSpp]dtb IrXnIfmWv.  hnai\tm BkzmZ\tmSSpp \npp sI.hks cN\I.  ]cn\njvTnXamb ]mnXyhpw KthjWhpw bpnt_m[hpw tUm.]n.hn.thembp[ ]nbpsS hnai\ġp sXfna \Ipp.

          A[ym]\ns kPohm\p`hw Fw.eoemhXnbptSbpw IcpmWv.  Dqea, Doe\amWv Xs amw Fp ]d eoemhXn Hgnbm_m[Ifnm klrZbtmsS Fmetbpw IhnXsb kao]npp.  ckhpw [z\nbpw t]mse bpns a\:imkv{Xhpw eoemhXn Imhym]{KY\n\p]IcWampp.  IhnXbnse t\cob kucyOmb t]mepw Xncndnbp Ah ]cnanXnI ImWmsX t]mIpp Fp ]dbmw.  "PnbpsS ImhyPohnXw" , "h cmPn" FnhbmWv AhcpsS hnai\ns anI amXrII.  BZncq]sfpdnp HcSnm\ {Khpw Ah kw`mh\ sNbvXnpv.  

          t{^mbnUns a\imkv{Xhpw amIvknb kao]\hpw ka\zbnm {ian s{]m^k Fw.F.hnPbs hnai\coXnv hyamb Hcp ]cnWmaw kw`hnnpv.  AXv a\mkv{Xns kmtXnIXzw Hgnhmn kwkvImchnai\ns hnkvXrXnIfntep ]cpp.  Hcp XnI lyqa\nkns temIhoWamWv DġmgvN \nd B hnai\sf Gsd {]kampXv. 

          {]XoXzmI hnai\ns DujvafXbmWv sI.]n.ics cN\Ifne\p`hsSpI.  hoW]camb ]IzXbpw kao]\]camb kpe\hpw tXmakv amXyphns hnai\ġp angnhp \Ipp. 

          Cu hn`mKw Ahkm\nnpXn\p ap]v Ahiyw ]cmainstS hnaiIhynXzamWv s{]m^. Fw.IrjvW \mb.  Aym]\]mccyahImisSmsanepw ]{X{]h\ns t{]cWIfmWv Atlns \ncq]Wsf hyXykvXampXv. A\pImenIfn kaeImeo\ kmlnXyspdnv kmlnXyhmc^esa t]cn tImfsagpXp Atlw kmlnXy\ncq]Ws P\{]nbamb Hcp kmlnXy cq]amn amn Fp ]dbmw.  Iiamb hn[n{]kvXmhfpw D]cnhamb XmcXayhpamWv B \ncq]WfpsS {]tXyIXI. ]c hmb\bneqsS X\np ]cnNnXambno hnizkmlnXynse anI FgppImscbpw IrXnIsfbpw ]cnNbsSpp Nne {]_ԧfpw AtlntXmbpv.

          t\mh kmlnXyhnai\n Gsd {in sI.]n. ic{, kmlnXyXXzhnNmcn XmXv]cyw Imnb IS cmaN{, [mcmfw \ncq]W{]_ԧ {]knoIcn s{]m^.aocmpn, {io. Fw.sI. hk, Fkv.cmPtiJc XpSn Aym]\ ]mccyn \nv, hnai\cwKtp h Ipdtsdt IqSn ]cmaialnphcmbpv. 

          aebmfhnai\cwKs Hs NnehynXzsfpdnp ]dnmhmw kaIme hnai\ntep ISpI. 

          KthjI\pw ]nX\pw, `mjmimkv{X\pamb tUm.sI.Fw. tPmPv XmcXaykmlnXyn\pX kw`mh\ \nkvXpeamWv.  Atlns kmlnXy{]_ԧfntednb ]pw kmlnXyhnm\ n\p \Inb apXqmWv.  \t Ipdp \ncq]Wtf Atlw FgpXnbnpp. 

          kwkvIrXnse _lphn[amb hnm\ ]XnIfnepw B[p\nI ]mmXyhnm\ [mcIfnepw Akm[mcWamb ]mnXyap Fw.]n.ipn \mbcpsS hnai\fn ]gabpw kaImeo\Xbpw ka\znXamIpp.  PnbpsS "hnizZi\s" bpw sshtemnnbpsS "Io ]mSs" bpw IpdntlsagpXnb \ncq]W AXyw {imlamWv. 

          auenIamb shfn]mSpIfpw AhniZamb DġmgvNIfpw ]n.sI._meIrjvWs \ncq]Wsf \nbn {][m\ LSIfmWv.  Hcp ]{X{]hIs qeamb `mj Atlns D]Zi\fpsS kqvaX \ampp Fp ]dbmsanepw ImhyIe Ipamc\mim\neqsS t\mh knnbpw km[\bpw Fo IrXnI auenIXsImv {itbamWv. 

          1960 ItfmsS aebmfkmlnXyn kw`hn `mhpIXz]cnWmaw ]pXnsbmcp kmlnXykao]\hpw Znimt_m[hpw Ahiyamnop.  AkvXnXzmt\zjW\njvTamb A`mhhpw bYmXtYXcamb BhnjvImccoXnbpw m]nXamb aqeykev]fpsS \ntj[hpw bmYmkvYXnIamb ImhyLS\IfpsS XIepw Hs kucymIamb \oXnhXvIcWamhiysp.  AXphsc \ncq]Ww apJyambpw ImhytI{nXambncpsn Ctm hnai\ns {i t\mhenepw sNdpIYbnepw tI{nXambn. amdnb `mhpIXzn\\pkc Wambn kmlnXys Dsmm t]m sskmnI `qanI HcppIbpw \ho\ kmlnXyns hyXncnXI hniZampIbpw sNpXn tUm.sI.AWncpw, knZm\\pw \tc{{]kmZpw _n.cmPoh\pw sI.Fkv. \mcmbW]nbpw hln ]v KW\obamWv.  Xangnse XnW k]n\\pkcWambn XIgnsb a\nemm {ianpIbpw Aknthi knmsa t]cn Hcp kmlnXy kao]\ coXn  BhnjvIcnpIbpw sNbvX AWn \ho\kmlnXyns am{Xw hmhmbn \npn. \ho\ `mhpIXzs \ntbmamIvknb Nnbpambn ka\zbnm\p k^eamb {iaw \tc{{]kmZnsbpw _n.cmPohsbpw hnai\fn ImWmw. B\njvTamb kXymt\zjWw Bjmtat\ms \ncq]tWm]\ymksf kwkvImcNnbpsS Xefnsenpp.  Cwojv kmlnXyhpambpw CwojneqsSnt bqtdm]y kmlnXyNnbpambpw KmVamb _w ]penb ChcpsS hnai\ `mj Xs Hv A]cnNnXXzw tXmnpXmbncpp.  B[p\nI kmlnXyw t]mse, hnai\hpw Zp{KlamIpp F ]cmXn DfhmbXv As\bmWv. 

          \ho\`mhpIXzns apJyhmhmbn AwKoIcnsXv sI.]n.A\mWv.  AmZaobamb kmlnXykao]\s XnckvIcnp sImv cwKph A kaIme]mmXyhnai\n \nv, {]tXyInv "P\ohmkvXp"Ifn \nv {]tNmZ\apsmpIbpw hnai\n\v sshImcnIhpw `mh\mIhpamb am\ \evIm {ianpIbpw sNbvXp. sshbnIamb {]XnIcWhpw `mjbpsS ImhymIXzhpw, Atls Hcp XeapdbpsS Bcm[\m]m{Xamn.  hnai\nse \ho\kao]\ {]tbmKnhcn hn.cmPIrjvW\pw ]cmaialnpp. "tcmKns ]qfpw", "ssienbpsS {]ImiXocfpw" aebmfhnai\s kw_nnStmfw ]pXnb ]cnt{]yfmbncpp.  sskmnIhnai\n Xs kmnyapdmm {ianp _meN{ hStSpw \ho\IhnIsf hymJym\nm {ianp {]k cmP\pw kzm\p`hsf B\njvTambn hmNmeambn hnhcnp Fw.sI. lcnIpamdpsams Cu ]menemWv a\nemstSXv. 

          aebmf kmlnXyw B[p\nIXbn \nv Dcm[p\nIXbntep ISncnpp Fp hmZnp hnaiIcpv.  Dcm[p\nI kmlnXyknm \psS ]pXnb hnaiIsc kzm[o\nnpv.  s^an\nknsbpw ]mcnnXnI hnai\nsbpw, \hNcn{XhmZnsbpw \ntbmamIvknb kucyimkv{Xnsbpw LS\m hmZnsbpw A]\nmWnsbpw Bib]camb kzm[o\w {]ISamWv.  kmlnXyhnai\s kwkvImc]T\amm\pw kmlnXys {]Xybimkv{X]cambnmWm\pw kmlnXyn Xepw hnepambn InSp ]mTsf t]sSpm\p {ia Bcw`np Ignncnpp.  Cu sskmnI \ne]mSpI {KlnpsImp Xs kzamb Hcp ImgvNmSv cq]sSpm {ianp hn.kn.{ioP\pw kwkvImchnai\nsd hgn tXSp ]n.]n.cho{\pw ]pXnb hnai\XXz Bib Imepjyw IqSmsX {]tbmKnp C.hn. cmaIrjvW\pw sNdpIYm]T\ntesd {inp Cu.]n.cmPtKm]mepw\ntbmamIvknb Nnbn \nv Duvw kw`cnp ]n.sI.cmPtiJc\pw ChnsS {]tXyIw ]cmaialnpp.  amIvknb kmlnXyNnbpsS kzm[o\w ]n. tkmasd hnai\kao]\nepw ImWmw. sI.Fkv.chnIpam Gsd XmXv]cyw ImpXv sNdpIYm]T\nemWv. ]mcnnXnI hnai\nse anhmdpw Hs kzcamWv a[pkqZ\tXv. 

            Cv aebmfkmlnXyhnai\w kmtXnIkwIfpsS karnsImv AXohkoamb Hcp hnNmctaJebmbncnpp.  {]tXyI coXnimkv{Xfn inWw e`nhp am{Xw hym]cnm t]m Hcp temIw.  AXpsImpXs km[mcWklrZbXzw AXn \nIepp F Bibpw Dbnpv.

 
 

Top...